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中國精品科技期刊2020

紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿醋飲的工藝優化及品質分析

韓穎 王茜 侯晨梓 卜賢盼 唐德劍 趙育

韓穎,王茜,侯晨梓,等. 紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿醋飲的工藝優化及品質分析[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):167?175. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158
引用本文: 韓穎,王茜,侯晨梓,等. 紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿醋飲的工藝優化及品質分析[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):167?175. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158
HAN Ying, WANG Qian, HOU Chenzi, et al. Optimization of Fermentation Process and Quality Analysis of Buckwheat Vinegar Fermented by Kombucha[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 167?175. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158
Citation: HAN Ying, WANG Qian, HOU Chenzi, et al. Optimization of Fermentation Process and Quality Analysis of Buckwheat Vinegar Fermented by Kombucha[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 167?175. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158

紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿醋飲的工藝優化及品質分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158
基金項目: 西安市科技局項目(20193049YF037NS037);陜西省科技廳項目(2019NY-131)。
詳細信息
    作者簡介:

    韓穎(1997?),女,碩士研究生,研究方向:食品發酵工藝,E-mail:137212531@qq.com

    通訊作者:

    趙育(1988?),女,博士,副教授,研究方向:食品發酵學,E-mail:yuzhao@snnu.edu.cn

  • 中圖分類號: TS275.4

Optimization of Fermentation Process and Quality Analysis of Buckwheat Vinegar Fermented by Kombucha

  • 摘要: 本文以蕎麥漿為原料,采用紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿制備蕎麥漿醋飲。以蕎麥漿發酵液總酸含量及感官評分為指標,探究不同蕎麥漿可溶性固形物含量、紅茶菌接種量、發酵溫度對發酵液品質的影響,確定發酵最佳工藝條件;在最佳工藝條件下制備蕎麥漿醋飲,探究發酵過程中蕎麥漿pH、總酸、總酚、總黃酮及有機酸含量的變化。結果表明,紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿醋飲最佳工藝條件為可溶性固形物含量13%,紅茶菌接種量15%,發酵溫度30 ℃;在此優化條件下,發酵過程中,蕎麥漿pH降低、總酸升高,還原糖含量先升高后下降,總酚含量升高、黃酮含量先下降后升高,乙酸、乳酸、琥珀酸含量增加,蘋果酸和丙二酸含量先增加后降低;發酵9 d后得到的蕎麥漿醋飲總酸含量32.96 g/L,總酚含量1.72 g/L,總黃酮含量2.55 g/L,酸度適宜,口感柔和,具有濃郁的蕎麥香氣和保健功能。
  • 圖  1  SSC對蕎麥漿發酵過程中總酸的影響

    Figure  1.  Effects of SSC on the total acid in the fermentation process of buckwheat syrup

    圖  2  紅茶菌接種量對蕎麥漿發酵過程中總酸的影響

    Figure  2.  Effects of kombucha inoculation amount on total acid in the fermentation process of buckwheat syrup

    圖  3  發酵溫度對蕎麥漿發酵過程中總酸的影響

    Figure  3.  Effects of fermentation temperature on the total acid in the fermentation process of buckwheat syrup

    圖  4  蕎麥漿發酵過程中pH和總酸含量變化

    Figure  4.  Changes in pH and total acid concentration of buckwheat syrup during the fermentation

    注:圖中不同小寫字母表示差異顯著(P<0.05);圖5~圖6同。

    圖  5  蕎麥漿發酵過程中還原糖含量變化

    Figure  5.  Changes of reducing sugar content in buckwheat syrup during the fermentation

    圖  6  蕎麥漿發酵過程中總酚及總黃酮含量變化

    Figure  6.  Changes in contents of total phenols and flavonoids in buckwheat syrup during the fermentation

    注:a表示蕎麥漿發酵過程中總酚含量變化;b表示蕎麥漿發酵過程中總黃酮含量變化。

    表  1  紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿工藝正交試驗因素水平設計

    Table  1.   Orthogonal test factor level table of kombucha fermented buckwheat milk syrup process

    水平A蕎麥漿SSC(%)B紅茶菌接種量(%)C發酵溫度(℃)
    ?1101025
    0131530
    1162035
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  2  蕎麥漿醋飲感官評定標準

    Table  2.   Criteria for sensory evaluation of buckwheat fermented beverage

    指標評價標準(100分)權重(100%)

    香氣
    香氣柔和,具有蕎麥特有釀造酸性香氣,
    無不良氣味(21~30)
    有刺激味,具有蕎麥特有釀造酸性香氣,
    稍有不良氣味(11~20)
    無蕎麥特有釀造酸性香氣,具有不良氣味(1~10)

    30


    口感

    口感好,酸度適宜,無異味(21~30)
    口感較好,酸度不適宜,無異味(11~20)
    口感較差,酸度不適宜,有異味(1~10)

    30

    形態
    液體澄清,透明,允許存在少量沉淀(16~20)
    液體較澄清,透明,有沉淀(8~15)
    液體渾濁,不透明,有較多沉淀(1~7)

    20

    色澤
    色澤光亮均勻,呈淡黃色(21~30)
    色澤均勻,呈淡黃偏白色(11~20)
    色澤暗淡,呈白色(1~10)

    20
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  3  紅茶菌發酵蕎麥漿工藝正交試驗結果及直觀分析

    Table  3.   Orthogonal test results and visual analysis of kombucha fermented buckwheat syrup process

    實驗組A蕎麥漿SSCB紅茶菌接種量C發酵溫度總酸含量(g·L?1感官評分(分)綜合評價(分)
    1?1?1?128.407981.74
    2?10033.988893.41
    3?11131.567783.57
    40?1034.948793.70
    500136.158492.89
    601?129.918083.93
    71?1132.768690.84
    810?129.647580.29
    911032.687482.67
    對總酸含量的影響
    K192.4497.4487.95
    K2101.0099.77101.60
    K395.0894.15100.47
    k130.8132.4829.32
    k233.6733.2633.87
    k331.6931.3833.49
    R8.565.6213.65
    因素主次順序 C>A>B
    優組合 A2B2C2
    對感官評分的影響
    K1244.00252.00234.00
    K2251.00247.00249.00
    K3235.00231.00247.00
    k181.3384.0078.00
    k283.6782.3383.00
    k378.3377.0082.33
    R162115
    主次順序 B>A>C
    優組合 A2B1C2
    對綜合評價值的影響
    K1258.82266.28245.96
    K2270.52266.59269.78
    K3253.80250.71267.30
    k186.2788.7681.99
    k290.1788.8689.93
    k384.6083.3989.10
    R16.7215.8823.82
    主次順序C>A>B
    優組合A2B2C2
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  4  總酸含量方差分析結果

    Table  4.   Results of variance analysis of total acid content

    因素平方和自由度標準差F顯著性
    模型52.96635.93*
    A-蕎麥漿SSC9.2810.3137.76*
    B-紅茶菌接種量24.2610.6798.73*
    C-發酵溫度36.2710.67147.59**
    殘差0.49142
    總和53.468
    注:*表示P<0.05,**表示P<0.01;表5~表6同。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  5  感官評價方差分析結果

    Table  5.   Results of variance analysis of sensory evaluation

    因素平方和自由度標準差F顯著性
    模型221.81624.01*
    A-蕎麥漿SSC94.5010.7761.38*
    B-紅茶菌接種量81.4811.6752.92*
    C-發酵溫度44.0211.6728.59**
    殘差3.082
    總和224.898
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  6  綜合評價方差分析結果

    Table  6.   Results of variance analysis of comprehensive evaluation

    因素平方和自由度標準差F顯著性
    模型245.30629.78*
    A-蕎麥漿SSC92.3110.7267.23*
    B-紅茶菌接種量93.4411.5868.05*
    C-發酵溫度103.4811.5875.37*
    殘差2.752
    總和248.058
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  7  不同有機酸保留時間、峰面積及標準曲線方程

    Table  7.   Retention time, peak area and standard curve equation of different organic acids

    序號有機酸種類保留時間峰面積標準曲線方程決定系數R2
    1蘋果酸9.4045.9044y=1.0750x+3.21700.9997
    2丙二酸10.1664.9277y=1.2586x+1.78110.9988
    3L-乳酸11.3543.2927y=0.7048x?0.14250.9998
    4乙酸12.5283.5577y=0.6782x?0.26790.9991
    5富馬酸15.1994.0488y=0.7378x+2.20420.9942
    6琥珀酸16.4825.0246y=0.9422x+2.6690.9971
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  8  蕎麥漿發酵過程中各有機酸含量變化

    Table  8.   Changes in the contents of organic acids during the fermentation of buckwheat syrup

    有機酸
    (g·L-1
    天數(d)
    013579
    蘋果酸0.29±0.03a1.21±0.03b3.78±0.12c4.29±0.03d7.19±0.04e2.92±0.06f
    丙二酸0.97±0.05a2.69±0.06b9.91±0.13c12.28±1.25d1.52±0.08a0.41±0.05a
    L-乳酸0.48±0.05a1.17±0.06b1.59±0.03c2.73±0.08d5.42±0.05e6.46±0.08f
    乙酸1.40±0.08a6.90±0.09b8.36±0.24c9.49±0.05d13.2±0.11e18.53±0.14f
    富馬酸0.02±0.00a0.02±0.00a0.02±0.00a0.03±0.00a0.03±0.00a0.04±0.00b
    琥珀酸2.38±0.03a3.29±0.02b3.49±0.14c3.81±0.07d3.98±0.12d3.99±0.11d
    注:表中不同字母表示差異顯著(P<0.05)。
    下載: 導出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-18
  • 網絡出版日期:  2022-08-11
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-11

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