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中國精品科技期刊2020

軟包裝即食小龍蝦關鍵工藝對質地的影響

李雪紅 羅小瑩 付朋 付曉燕 李述剛 石柳 吳文錦 丁安子 熊光權 汪蘭

李雪紅,羅小瑩,付朋,等. 軟包裝即食小龍蝦關鍵工藝對質地的影響[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):41?49. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129
引用本文: 李雪紅,羅小瑩,付朋,等. 軟包裝即食小龍蝦關鍵工藝對質地的影響[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):41?49. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129
LI Xuehong, LUO Xiaoying, FU Peng, et al. Effect of Key Technology on Texture of Ready-to-eat Crayfish in Soft Packaging[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 41?49. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129
Citation: LI Xuehong, LUO Xiaoying, FU Peng, et al. Effect of Key Technology on Texture of Ready-to-eat Crayfish in Soft Packaging[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 41?49. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129

軟包裝即食小龍蝦關鍵工藝對質地的影響

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129
基金項目: 國家重點研發計劃項目(2019YFD0902000);湖北省青年拔尖人才培養計劃項目;湖北省技術創新專項重大項目(2019ABA087)。
詳細信息
    作者簡介:

    李雪紅(1997?),女,碩士研究生,研究方向:食品蛋白質化學與營養創新,E-mail:lxhong199712@163.com

    通訊作者:

    汪蘭(1981?),女,博士,研究員,研究方向:農產品加工和天然產物化學,E-mail:lilywang_2016@163.com

  • 中圖分類號: TS254.4

Effect of Key Technology on Texture of Ready-to-eat Crayfish in Soft Packaging

  • 摘要: 為探究關鍵工藝對小龍蝦產品品質的影響,以小龍蝦為原料,通過質構分析、低場核磁共振與感官評價等方法,研究保水劑(1%、1.5%無磷保水劑和1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖)、干燥條件(溫度:70、80、90 ℃;時間:0.5、1、1.5、2 h)及殺菌條件(100、115、121 ℃;15 min)對其水分、質構特性及感官評分的影響,優化軟包裝即食小龍蝦加工工藝并探究水分與質地的關系。結果表明,保水劑(1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖)添加增加了蝦肉中的不易流動水和自由水含量,并顯著提高蝦肉的持水性,降低蝦肉硬度(P < 0.05),且隨干燥溫度的升高和時間的延長,蝦肉水分含量顯著減少(P<0.05),硬度和咀嚼性增加;而過高的殺菌溫度破壞蝦肉內部纖維結構,導致蝦肉咀嚼性差。結果表明蝦肉制品的水分含量顯著影響其產品品質,同時確定了即食小龍蝦加工工藝最佳條件,即添加保水劑(1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖),70 ℃下干燥1 h,115 ℃殺菌15 min時蝦肉感官品質較佳,吡嗪類化合物增加,具有炸蝦特有的風味。研究結果能為軟包裝即食小龍蝦加工產品品質的提升及產業化提供理論參考。
  • 圖  1  添加不同腌制液的小龍蝦尾肉T2反演圖譜

    Figure  1.  T2 inversion map of crayfish tail meat with different marinating liquids

    圖  2  不同干燥條件下小龍蝦尾肉T2反演圖譜

    Figure  2.  T2 inversion map of crayfish tail meat under different drying conditions

    注:A:70 ℃干燥后的小龍蝦尾肉;B:80 ℃干燥后的小龍蝦尾肉;C:90 ℃干燥后的小龍蝦尾肉。

    圖  3  不同干燥條件下小龍蝦尾肉的核磁成像圖

    Figure  3.  MRI images of crayfish tail meat under different drying conditions

    圖  4  不同干燥條件下小龍蝦尾肉的縱切面

    Figure  4.  Longitudinal section of crayfish tail meat under different drying conditions

    圖  5  不同殺菌溫度后小龍蝦尾肉T2反演圖譜

    Figure  5.  T2 inversion map of crayfish tail meat after different sterilization temperatures

    表  1  小龍蝦感官評定標準[13]

    Table  1.   Crayfish sensory evaluation standards[13]

    指標評分標準分值(分)
    滋味味道良好,有小龍蝦特有滋味15~20
    咸味較淡或咸味較重8~14
    咸味很淡或咸味很重0~7
    質地蝦肉與蝦殼粘黏好,形態飽滿25~30
    蝦肉與蝦殼輕微分離,形態比較飽滿17~24
    蝦肉與蝦殼明顯分離、肉質輕微干燥9~16
    蝦肉與蝦殼完全分離、肉質干燥皺縮,粗糙碎裂0~8
    口感肉質緊密,硬度良好,咀嚼性好15~20
    肉質稍硬或者稍軟,咀嚼性一般8~14
    肉質軟爛或產品太硬,咀嚼性差,難咀嚼0~7
    外觀顏色鮮亮、飽滿有光澤11~15
    色澤暗淡、略微變色,光澤差6~10
    無原有的色澤,無光澤0~5
    氣味具有小龍蝦特有的蝦香味11~15
    香氣良好無異味6~10
    無小龍蝦香味,有腥味0~5
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  2  保水劑對小龍蝦尾肉質構參數(硬度和彈性)、水分含量及持水性的影響

    Table  2.   Effect of water retention agent on texture parameters (hardness and elasticity), moisture content and water holding capacity of crayfish tail meat

    組別表面硬度(N)內部硬度(N)彈性(N)水分含量(%)WHC(%)
    K89.47±7.39c2.65±0.31bc51.79±0.85a64.96±0.76a90.78±0.72bc
    T-174.86±6.75ab1.56±0.28a51.44±1.09a66.67±0.92a92.58±0.92a
    T-284.96±6.16bc2.96±0.49c51.09±1.57a66.88±0.80a90.76±0.28c
    T-361.99±8.99a2.38±0.43b51.14±0.78a65.22±0.94a91.99±0.95ab
    注:K:空白對照組;T-1:1%無磷保水劑;T-2:1.5%無磷保水劑;T-3:1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖;不同小寫字母表示兩組間有顯著性差異(P<0.05)。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  3  不同干燥條件對小龍蝦尾肉質構參數(硬度和彈性)、水分含量和感官評價影響

    Table  3.   Effects of different drying conditions on texture parameters (hardness and elasticity), moisture content and sensory evaluation of crayfish tail meat

    干燥溫度
    (℃)
    干燥時間
    (h)
    質構參數 水分含量(%)感官評分(分)
    表面硬度內部硬度彈性
    700.542.32±7.65Aa1.20±0.10Aa49.26±1.36Aa 71.63±1.92Ab80.75±3.19Ac
    150.93±9.18Aab1.11±0.20Aa49.10±2.43Aa68.13±0.62Cb81.54±6.94Bc
    1.555.29±6.31Ab1.32±0.26Aa48.81±1.62Aa60.97±4.20Ba75.75±6.91Bb
    287.05±5.44Ac3.91±0.68Ab48.25±1.52Ca57.20±4.35Ca70.11±9.00Ba
    800.579.50±4.17Ca2.85±0.35Cab51.36±0.87Bb70.01±1.25Ab77.00±3.46Ac
    184.77±8.10Ba1.80±0.42Ba53.40±1.27Bb63.24±1.85Bb65.60±9.83Ab
    1.599.79±9.11Ba3.95±0.68Cb51.12±1.42Bb45.89±6.54Ba64.00±8.80Ab
    2217.28±35.91Bb7.06±2.24Bc39.31±5.31Aa44.77±0.86Ba52.42±9.89Aa
    900.570.07±7.47Ba2.31±0.55Ba53.85±1.24Cc69.83±0.99Ad76.66±7.17Ab
    1103.38±13.29Ca2.81±0.55Cab53.86±1.41Bc59.06±0.69Ac76.33±4.17Bb
    1.5123.03±19.41Ca3.50±0.63Bb49.04±2.07ABb43.55±1.21Ab71.40±7.05Ba
    2356.10±31.93Cb10.38±1.27Cc44.82±1.50Ba35.57±3.16Aa67.40±6.22Ba
    注:同列中不同小寫字母表示同溫度不同時間的差異顯著(P<0.05);同列中不同大寫字母表示同時不同溫的差異顯著(P<0.05)。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  4  70、80、90 ℃干燥后小龍蝦尾肉核磁共振參數

    Table  4.   NMR parameters of crayfish tail meat after drying at 70, 80, 90 ℃

    溫度(℃)干燥時間(h)T21T22T23P21P22P23
    700.52.74±0.23b47.61±3.06a632.90±77.32a8.40±0.77c90.57±0.53a1.19±0.11a
    12.88±0.20ab36.01±0.31b618.08±74.44a12.74±0.73b86.75±0.81b0.37±0.01b
    1.53.33±0.67a32.96±3.75b538.30±70.46b18.86±1.43a80.27±1.74c0.37±0.07b
    22.70±0.45b26.70±4.30c427.37±60.07c20.06±1.12a78.88±3.63c0.36±0.08b
    800.52.40±0.23ab39.76±2.73a465.45±34.80ab8.84±0.47c90.08±0.87a1.24±0.37a
    12.75±0.37a33.29±1.54b547.56±69.37a18.50±1.57b81.17±1.53b0.39±0.05b
    1.52.02±0.37b26.43±2.57c500.42±50.15a25.79±2.99a74.41±3.43c0.39±0.10b
    21.97±0.42b23.96±1.40d394.92±92.92b26.42±1.96a71.73±4.20c0.38±0.12b
    900.52.51±0.17a34.38±2.31a646.22±64.98a10.61±0.79d88.97±0.82a0.43±0.07a
    12.46±0.30a26.16±1.80b545.09±27.97b15.37±1.29c83.94±1.60b0.31±0.04b
    1.52.45±0.44a17.52±1.22c274.60±28.13c24.55±2.12b72.26±4.97c0.41±0.06a
    21.59±0.51b14.92±2.73c246.61±59.50c36.36±3.22a63.24±3.31d0.35±0.03ab
    注:同列中不同小寫字母表示同溫度不同時間的差異顯著(P<0.05)。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  5  不同殺菌溫度對小龍蝦尾肉質構參數(硬度和彈性)、水分含量的影響

    Table  5.   Effects of different sterilization temperatures on texture parameters (hardness and elasticity) and moisture content of crayfish tail meat

    殺菌溫度(℃)表面硬度(N)內部硬度(N)彈性(N)水分含量(%)
    10093.77±7.37c2.18±0.54b48.91±0.84b45.43±5.22a
    11560.42±8.51a1.41±0.30a49.09±0.86b50.17±3.78a
    12176.67±8.19b1.04±0.47a44.53±1.35a46.01±3.16a
    注:同列小寫字母相同表示差異不顯著(P>0.05);小寫字母不相同表示差異顯著(P<0.05);表6同。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  6  不同處理對小龍蝦尾肉質構參數(硬度和彈性)及感官評分的影響

    Table  6.   Effects of different treatments on texture parameters (hardness and elasticity) and sensory scores of crayfish tail meat

    處理方式表面硬度(N)內部硬度(N)彈性(N)感官評分(分)
    K94.78±8.63b3.09±0.14b48.20±2.19a79.00±5.37a
    T-362.92±6.65a2.05±0.28a49.53±2.44a74.60±4.34a
    注:K:不添加1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖;T-3:添加1.2%碳酸氫鈉+4%海藻糖。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  7  不同處理小龍蝦肉中風味物質變化情況

    Table  7.   Changes of flavor substances in crayfish meat in different treatments

    種類
    化合物名稱
    相對含量(%)
    處理組空白組
    己醛0.24±0.030.39±0.02
    正辛醛0.23±0.010.30±0.04
    甲基庚烯酮0.14±0.00?
    壬醛0.56±0.020.81±0.01
    苯甲醛0.68±0.020.93±0.00
    對甲氧基苯甲醛0.12±0.010.14±0.01
    桉葉油醇1.82±0.01?
    苯甲醇?0.96±0.00
    2-甲基-5-異丙基-二環[3.1.0]己烷-2-醇0.08±0.550.26±0.00
    芳樟醇37.54±0.0740.20±0.31
    1-辛醇?0.06±0.00
    4-萜烯醇1.36±0.011.34±0.01
    松油醇0.57±0.01?
    羥基丙酮0.40±0.01?
    2,3-辛二酮?0.10±0.00
    甲基庚烯酮0.11±0.010.11±0.01
    4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)二環[3.1.0]己烷-3-酮0.28±0.010.32±0.01
    烷烴碘代十六烷0.06±0.00?
    十甲基環五硅氧烷2.00±0.02?
    二十一烷0.14±0.08?
    十二甲基環六硅氧烷0.73±0.021.12±0.69
    十二甲基五硅氧烷0.37±0.01?
    八甲基環四硅氧烷0.10±0.020.18±0.01
    β-蒎烯0.07±0.030.11±0.05
    2-甲基-5-(1-甲基乙基)-1,3-環己二烯?0.13±0.05
    月桂烯0.47±0.230.84±0.01
    α-萜品烯0.13±0.020.12±0.01
    萜品油烯0.08±0.030.17±0.09
    3-亞甲基-6-(1-甲基乙基)環己烯0.53±0.240.91±0.02
    萜品烯0.58±0.040.74±0.02
    1-石竹烯1.11±0.031.03±0.01
    4-烯丙基苯甲醚3.36±0.063.36±0.05
    酚類苯酚0.01±0.010.11±0.01
    甲基丁香酚0.26±0.010.24±0.01
    丁香酚1.62±0.01?
    乙酸0.35±0.110.22±0.03
    酯類乙酸松油酯0.20±0.010.09±0.00
    其他間異丙基甲苯0.29±0.110.21±0.05
    2-甲基吡嗪1.16±0.090.41±0.20
    2,6-二甲基吡嗪6.94±0.202.91±0.10
    2,6-二甲基吡嗪0.94±0.010.28±0.15
    茴香腦17.40±0.0517.46±0.23
    黃樟素0.06±0.00?
    注:“?”表示未檢出。
    下載: 導出CSV
    人妻AV无码系列一区二区三区
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-12
  • 網絡出版日期:  2022-08-11
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