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中國精品科技期刊2020

不同工藝制備的魚頭湯營養品質及風味特征比較研究

李璐 李鵬 孫慧娟 馬凱華 馬儷珍 李玲

李璐,李鵬,孫慧娟,等. 不同工藝制備的魚頭湯營養品質及風味特征比較研究[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(19):315?325. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
引用本文: 李璐,李鵬,孫慧娟,等. 不同工藝制備的魚頭湯營養品質及風味特征比較研究[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(19):315?325. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
LI Lu, LI Peng, SUN Huijuan, et al. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Quality and Flavor Characteristics of Fish Head Soup Prepared by Different Processes[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(19): 315?325. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
Citation: LI Lu, LI Peng, SUN Huijuan, et al. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Quality and Flavor Characteristics of Fish Head Soup Prepared by Different Processes[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(19): 315?325. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222

不同工藝制備的魚頭湯營養品質及風味特征比較研究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
基金項目: 天津市淡水養殖產業技術體系創新團隊項目(ITTFRS2021000-012)。
詳細信息
    作者簡介:

    李璐(1995?)(ORCID:0000-0002-8312-9322),女,碩士,研究方向:水產品加工品質與安全,E-mail:617207362@qq.com

    通訊作者:

    李玲(1982?)(ORCID: 0000-0003-2505-2045),女,博士,副教授,研究方向:果蔬采后生理與分子生物學、食品質量與安全,E-mail:liling19820925@163.com

  • 中圖分類號: TS254.9

Comparative Study on the Nutritional Quality and Flavor Characteristics of Fish Head Soup Prepared by Different Processes

  • 摘要: 為了解不同工藝對魚頭湯營養品質及風味特征的影響,本試驗以革胡子鯰魚魚頭的骨肉泥為原料,分別采用普通熬煮(Ordinary boil, OB)、超聲輔助普通熬煮(Ultrasound-assisted ordinary boil, U-OB)、酶解(Enzymatic hydrolysis, Eh)和超聲輔助酶解(Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis, U-Eh)四種工藝制備出四組魚頭湯,并進行營養成分、GC-MS、GC-IMS和電子鼻的分析。結果表明:超聲輔助處理組(U-OB)的水溶性蛋白含量顯著高于未經超聲處理組(OB);Eh和U-Eh中的鈣、硒含量高于OB和U-OB;Eh和U-Eh的氨基酸含量遠高于OB和U-OB,但苦味氨基酸含量高于鮮味和甜味氨基酸,魚頭湯中還檢測出?;撬?、肌肽等物質;電子鼻結果顯示四種魚頭湯氣味區分明顯,沒有出現重疊現象,U-Eh滋味輪廓與其他三個樣品距離較遠,風味較為豐富;GC-IMS技術共定性出33種物質,主要為醛類和酮類,OB與U-OB之間和Eh與U-Eh之間比較,它們的揮發性有機物(VOCs)種類相似,但含量差異較大;四組樣品之間共性的VOCs只有壬醛(二聚體)、2-庚酮和壬醛(單體),均對魚頭湯的風味有較好的修飾作用。
  • 圖  1  四種工藝魚頭湯電子鼻響應值的PCA分析

    Figure  1.  PCA analysis of electronic nose response value of four kinds of craft fish head soup

    圖  2  四種工藝魚頭湯氣相色譜離子遷移譜3D圖

    Figure  2.  3D image of gas chromatographic ion mobility spectra of four kinds of craft fish head soup

    圖  3  四種工藝魚頭湯氣相色譜離子遷移譜差異圖

    Figure  3.  Differences in gas chromatography ion mobility spectra of four kinds of craft fish head soup

    圖  4  四種工藝魚頭湯揮發性物質指紋圖

    Figure  4.  Fingerprints of volatile substances in four kinds of craft fish head soup

    表  1  四組魚頭湯的基本營養成分分析

    Table  1.   Analysis of basic nutritional components of four groups of fish head soup

    樣品名稱水分(%)脂肪(%)水溶性蛋白(%)
    OB98.05±0.03a1.07±0.09c0.61±0.04d
    U-OB97.89±0.04a1.15±0.00b0.78±0.02c
    Eh93.81±0.04b1.22±0.04ab4.00±0.08a
    U-Eh94.84±0.06b1.27±0.01a3.48±0.06b
    注:同列不同小寫字母表示差異顯著(P<0.05)。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  2  四組魚頭湯的礦物質含量變化

    Table  2.   Changes in mineral content of four groups of fish head soup

    礦物質種類HOBU-OBEhU-Eh
    鈣(mg/kg)11923.133.070.435.6
    銅(mg/kg)<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5
    鐵(mg/kg)5.05<3<3<3<3
    鉀(mg/kg)282217212592555
    鎂(mg/kg)41.6<20<20<20<20
    錳(mg/kg)<0.3<0.3<0.3<0.3<0.3
    鈉(g/kg)0.2932.272.17573516
    鋅(mg/kg)13.7<2<2<2<2
    硒(mg/kg)0.055<0.006<0.0060.0230.017
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  3  四種工藝魚頭湯的氨基酸種類及其含量分析

    Table  3.   Analysis of amino acid types and contents of four kinds of craft fish head soup

    氨基酸種類含量(mg/100 g)
    OBU-OBEhU-Eh
    苯丙氨酸#0.6950.34955.83455.767
    蘇氨酸*1.3160.68919.64023.740
    纈氨酸#0.8960.49624.26928.361
    蛋氨酸#0.3260.12727.29929.364
    異亮氨酸#1.0820.88232.67035.400
    亮氨酸#1.0150.850111.65113.683
    色氨酸#0.2170.0506.7576.727
    賴氨酸#2.6462.60555.27055.856
    必需氨基酸小計8.1936.048333.389348.898
    谷氨酸+0.3840.83224.40426.919
    絲氨酸*1.5520.79412.75717.034
    甘氨酸*2.9682.78318.49825.833
    丙氨酸*2.2882.10613.09716.828
    酪氨酸#1.3210.40767.16766.259
    組氨酸#0.7270.38314.61115.807
    脯氨酸*0.5150.5575.9698.139
    精氨酸#1.0690.553157.306155.897
    天冬氨酸+0.4700.1811.9604.092
    天冬酰胺????
    非必需氨基酸小計11.2948.596315.769336.808
    磷酸絲氨酸0.7730.6934.5324.431
    磷酸乙醇胺0.4790.2830.5590.600
    ?;撬?/td>14.64716.24833.5232.295
    α-氨基丁酸0.1440.0390.5920.508
    1-甲基組氨酸0.2290.0160.5110.524
    3-甲基組氨酸0.2060.0582.1482.008
    瓜氨酸0.2540.06223.30929.610
    肌肽0.2310.1044.2954.178
    β-丙氨酸0.2000.0896.0845.185
    β-氨基異丁酸0.3380.25125.55424.210
    γ-氨基丁酸0.2060.0671.0961.014
    鳥氨酸0.5080.3680.4280.951
    其它化合物小計18.44318.502104.25107.409
    甜味氨基酸8.6396.92969.96191.574
    鮮味氨基酸0.8541.01326.36431.011
    苦味氨基酸9.9947.534577.237590.040
    總計37.70232.922751.786791.22
    注:#表示苦味氨基酸;*表示甜味氨基酸;+表示鮮味氨基酸;表4同。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  4  游離氨基酸及滋味活性值

    Table  4.   Free amino acid and taste activity value

    游離氨基酸滋味特征閾值
    (mg/100 g)[7]
    滋味活性值TAV
    OBU-OBEhU-Eh
    苯丙氨酸#苦味900.0080.0040.6200.620
    蘇氨酸*甜味2600.0050.0030.0760.091
    纈氨酸#苦味400.0220.0120.6070.709
    蛋氨酸#苦味300.0110.0040.9100.979
    異亮氨酸#苦味900.0120.0100.3630.393
    亮氨酸#苦味1900.0050.0040.5880.598
    色氨酸#苦味3000.0010.00020.0230.022
    賴氨酸#苦/甜味500.0530.0521.1051.117
    谷氨酸+鮮味300.0130.0280.8130.897
    絲氨酸*甜味1500.0100.0050.0850.114
    甘氨酸*甜味1300.0230.0210.1420.199
    丙氨酸*甜味600.0380.0350.2180.280
    酪氨酸#苦味2600.0050.0020.2580.255
    組氨酸#苦味200.0360.0190.7310.790
    脯氨酸*甜/苦味3000.0020.0020.0200.027
    精氨酸#苦味500.0210.0113.1463.118
    天冬氨酸+鮮味1000.0050.0020.0200.041
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  5  四種工藝魚頭湯風味物質含量

    Table  5.   Contents of flavor substances in four kinds of craft fish head soup

    編號種類化合物名稱含量(μg/kg)
    OBU-OBEhU-Eh
    1醛類正己醛44.3429.3016.2010.64
    2庚醛7.232.40?3.22
    3正辛醛21.386.969.738.09
    4壬醛41.6811.490.7533.34
    5戊醛14.5314.94??
    6反-2-辛烯醛34.3338.190.125.54
    7(E,E)-2,4-庚二烯醛1.441.021.25?
    82,4-壬二烯醛?0.22??
    9(E,E)-2,4-壬二烯醛10.519.370.142.63
    10十二醛?3.062.04?
    11反式-2-癸烯醛27.64??4.47
    122-十一烯醛14.63?0.081.66
    13反-2-十二烯醛0.98???
    14十三醛0.46?2.14?
    15苯乙醛??0.852.76
    16三聚甲醛??1.261.91
    17間苯二甲醛0.62?0.811.96
    18順式-9-十六烯醛??0.12?
    19十四醛三聚物1.39?0.4133.52
    20十五醛??0.280.77
    小計221.17116.9636.19110.50
    1酮類
    3-辛酮?4.57?0.30
    23-辛烯-2-酮3.492.770.041.05
    32,5-二甲基苯乙酮?4.74??
    41-辛烯-3-酮3.430.79?0.48
    55-羥基-4-辛酮1.16???
    6芐叉丙酮0.50???
    73,4-二甲基苯乙酮0.67?0.721.43
    84-辛酮??0.32?
    93-羥基-2-丁酮??0.170.38
    10甲基庚烯酮???1.35
    112,3-辛二酮??18.6216.09
    124-甲基-3戊烯-2-酮??13.488.85
    13十七烷酮??0.390.41
    141,4-二噻烷-2-酮??0.800.29
    15四氫噻吩-3-酮??0.990.56
    小計9.2512.8735.5331.18
    1


    烴類
    1,3-二乙?;?/td>0.22?2.000.31
    2環辛四烯???0.24
    31,2,4,5-四甲基苯???0.28
    42.90?2.853.67
    53,3-二甲基戊烷???1.74
    61,1,6三甲基-1,2二氫萘??0.450.80
    71-十六烯???0.65
    83,5-二叔丁基甲苯???2.92
    小計3.120.005.3010.62
    11-戊醇1.052.381.080.46
    2正己醇?60.3448.720.62
    3醇類
    1-辛烯-3-醇32.6841.3810.0015.17
    4正庚醇3.2610.8420.082.44
    52-乙基己醇?4.08??
    62,4-二甲基環己醇4.983.162.361.96
    7 辛醇?28.750.204.54
    8反式-2-辛烯-1-醇2.588.72?3.48
    91-壬醇?34.31??
    10反式-2-壬烯-1-醇?1.33??
    11苯甲醇?0.18?0.32
    12苯乙醇?2.240.751.14
    132,4-癸二烯-1-醇?2.22??
    141-十三醇?9.95??
    15(Z)-4-癸烯-1-醇?0.64??
    16反-2-十一烯醇1.566.362.08?
    17十二醇?21.930.832.87
    184-乙基環己醇5.98???
    19正辛醇6.51???
    201,4-丁二醇1.41?2.132.81
    211-十六烷醇??4.45?
    224-庚醇??0.193.80
    23頻哪醇??0.52?
    242-噻吩甲醇??0.541.79
    25芳樟醇??1.830.85
    小計60.02238.8095.7542.24
    1醚類甲基異丙基醚?1.05??
    2乙二醇乙醚???0.50
    3二乙二醇乙醚6.06??6.25
    4叔戊基甲基醚???3.10
    5二乙二醇丁醚???0.40
    小計6.061.05?10.25
    1酯類戊酸異丙酯?0.43??
    2正己酸乙烯酯?1.86??
    3乙二醇月桂酸酯?1.17??
    4鄰苯二甲酸雙-2-乙氧基乙酯??5.27?
    5丙位壬內酯0.450.540.110.37
    6gamma-己內酯0.36???
    74-羥基丁基丙烯酸酯0.21?2.14?
    8鄰苯二甲酸二異丁酯0.06?0.100.91
    9己二酸二(2-乙基己)酯??0.49?
    10丙烯酸四氫糠基酯??0.17?
    11十二(烷)酸芐酯苯基酯??1.070.88
    12鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯??1.001.42
    小計1.074.0110.363.58
    1酚類
    3,5-二叔丁基苯酚??0.723.33
    22,4-二叔丁基苯酚?1.011.51?
    小計0.001.012.243.33
    1酸類己酸2.640.97??
    2棕櫚酸0.96?0.043.04
    3肉豆蔻酸??0.12?
    4苯甲酸??0.211.01
    小計3.600.970.374.04
    1其他
    氨基脲?2.55??
    22-正戊基呋喃11.8111.589.088.62
    3吲哚0.36?4.191.66
    4月桂酰胺0.04?0.475.54
    53,5-二甲基-1-苯基吡唑???0.24
    63-乙基-2,5-甲基吡嗪??0.470.67
    7奧苷菊環?0.43??
    8 苯并噻唑?0.26??
    小計12.2114.1414.2116.73
    總計316.50389.80199.94232.47
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  6  四種工藝魚頭湯風味物質閾值及OAV

    Table  6.   Four kinds of craft fish head soup flavor substances threshold and OAV

    種類化合物名稱閾值(μg/kg)[24?25]氣味活度值(OAV)
    OBU-OBEhU-Eh
    醛類正己醛5.008.875.863.242.13
    庚醛2.802.580.86?1.15
    正辛醛0.5836.9912.0416.8314.00
    壬醛1.1037.8910.450.6930.30
    醇類1-辛烯-3-醇1.0032.6841.3810.0015.17
    苯乙醇86.00?0.030.010.01
    芳樟醇6.00??0.310.14
    其他2-正戊基呋喃6.001.971.931.511.44
    注:OAV值=表5中物質的含量/表6中的閾值。
    下載: 導出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-19
  • 網絡出版日期:  2022-08-19
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-23

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