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中國精品科技期刊2020

基于高通量測序技術對6種黃酒酒曲中微生物多樣性的研究

谷曉東 劉怡琳 席曉麗 陳志周 馬艷莉 劉旭 王印壯 李素萍

谷曉東,劉怡琳,席曉麗,等. 基于高通量測序技術對6種黃酒酒曲中微生物多樣性的研究[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):148?157. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063
引用本文: 谷曉東,劉怡琳,席曉麗,等. 基于高通量測序技術對6種黃酒酒曲中微生物多樣性的研究[J]. 食品工業科技,2022,43(16):148?157. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063
GU Xiaodong, LIU Yilin, XI Xiaoli, et al. Microbial Diversity in Six Kinds of Huangjiu Koji Based on High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 148?157. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063
Citation: GU Xiaodong, LIU Yilin, XI Xiaoli, et al. Microbial Diversity in Six Kinds of Huangjiu Koji Based on High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(16): 148?157. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063

基于高通量測序技術對6種黃酒酒曲中微生物多樣性的研究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063
基金項目: 國家自然科學基金(31601462);南陽市科技重大專項(2019ZDZX10);河南省工業微生物資源與發酵技術重點實驗室開放課題(HIMFT20190307,HIMFT20190308);河南省高等學校青年骨干培養計劃(2020GGJS226)。
詳細信息
    作者簡介:

    谷曉東(1996?),男,碩士研究生,研究方向:食品工程,E-mail:1921261906@qq.com

    通訊作者:

    陳志周(1968?),男,博士,教授,研究方向:食品包裝材料與技術,E-mail:chenzhizhou2003@126.com

    馬艷莉(1982?),女,博士,教授,研究方向:食品營養與安全,E-mail:myl_dz@sina.com

  • 中圖分類號: TS261.1

Microbial Diversity in Six Kinds of Huangjiu Koji Based on High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques

  • 摘要: 本研究以6種黃酒酒曲為原料,利用高通量測序技術,研究酒曲中細菌和真菌的微生物群落結構及其多樣性。結果顯示,大米紅曲(JQ1)、小米紅曲(JQ2)的細菌群落結構及真菌群落結構都相似;麥曲(JQ3)、中藥曲(JQ4)、酒藥(JQ6)的細菌群落結構接近;JQ3、JQ4、黃酒曲(JQ5)的真菌群落結構接近。在門水平上,厚壁菌門(Firmicutes)是JQ2、JQ3、JQ4、JQ6優勢細菌門;JQ1、JQ5優勢細菌門為變形桿菌門(Proteobacteria)。6種酒曲的優勢真菌門是子囊菌門(Ascomycota)。在屬水平上,乳酸桿菌屬(Lactobacillus)是JQ1優勢細菌屬;雙歧桿菌屬(Bifidobacterium)是JQ2優勢細菌屬;JQ3、JQ5優勢細菌屬為未培養葉綠體細菌屬(uncultured_bacterium_o_Chloroplast);枝芽孢菌屬(Virgibacillus)僅為JQ4優勢細菌屬;葡萄球菌屬(Staphylococcus)是JQ6優勢細菌屬。JQ1優勢真菌屬為塞伯林德納氏酵母屬(Cyberlindnera),JQ2優勢真菌屬為紅曲霉屬(Monascus),JQ3、JQ5優勢真菌屬為曲霉菌屬(Aspergillus);JQ4優勢真菌屬是耐干霉菌屬(Xeromyces),米根霉屬(Rhizopus)是JQ6優勢真菌屬。綜上,6種酒曲的微生物群落結構在門和屬水平上都有較大差異,本文為后續紅谷黃酒酒曲的篩選提供了理論參考。
  • 圖  1  細菌和真菌稀釋曲線

    Figure  1.  Bacteria and fungi rarefaction curve

    注:a.細菌;b.真菌;圖2同。

    圖  2  六種酒曲中細菌和真菌的Shannon指數圖

    Figure  2.  Shannon index of bacteriaand fungi in six rice wine kojis

    圖  3  不同酒曲中主要細菌門和主要細菌屬的分布

    Figure  3.  Changes in relative abundance of major bacterial phylum and major bacterial genus in different Koji

    注:a.細菌門;b.細菌屬。

    圖  4  細菌相似性分析

    Figure  4.  Bacterial similarity analysis

    注:a.主坐標分;b.基于Beta多樣性距離的樣品層級聚類樹。

    圖  5  不同酒曲中主要真菌門和主要真菌屬的分布

    Figure  5.  Changes in relative abundance of major fungi phylum and major fungi genus in different Koji

    注:a.真菌門;b.真菌屬。

    圖  6  真菌相似性分析

    Figure  6.  Fungi similarity analysis

    注:a.非度量多維尺度分析圖;b.基于Beta多樣性距離的樣品層級聚類樹。

    表  1  黃酒評分標準

    Table  1.   Rating standard of Huangjiu

    項目評定標準得分(分)
    色澤
    (20分)
    清亮透明,有光澤,瓶底有微量聚集物15~20
    清亮透明,色澤正常,瓶底有少量聚集物10~14
    色澤暗淡渾濁,瓶底有大量聚集物0~9
    香氣
    (30分)
    具有黃酒特有的醇香濃郁,無異香20~30
    黃酒特有的醇香較濃郁,無異香10~19
    不具有黃酒特有的醇香,有異味0~9
    口味
    (25分)
    酒品醇和,爽口,無異味20~25
    酒品醇和,較爽口,無異味10~19
    酒品不醇和爽口,有異味0~9
    風格
    (25分)
    酒體協調,北京擎科生物科技有限公司具有
    黃酒的典型風格
    20~25
    酒體較協調,具有黃酒的典型風格10~19
    酒體不協調,不具有黃酒的典型風格0~9
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  2  不同酒曲釀制的紅谷黃酒理化指標

    Table  2.   Physiochemical indexes of red millet Huangjiu brewed with different koji

    參數大米紅曲小米紅曲麥曲中藥曲黃酒曲酒藥標準
    酒精度(%vol)12.69±0.11c13.78±0.04a11.68±0.12e11.03±0.05f13.22±0.10b12.08±0.06d≥8.0
    pH3.84±0.01b3.83±0.01b3.80±0.01b3.54±0.01d3.62±0.01c4.11±0.01a3.5~4.6
    總酸(g/L)7.72±0.12c7.11±0.09e7.47±0.13d9.08±0.03a8.17±0.05b4.16±0.08f3.0~10.0
    氨基態氮(g/L)0.70±0.03d1.02±0.02a0.81±0.04c0.87±0.01b0.58±0.05e0.27±0.02f≥0.16
    可溶性固形物(Brix%)11.8±0.10b12.9±0.10a11.3±0.10c10.9±0.10d8.7±0.10e8.1±0.10f?
    還原糖(g/L)4.55±0.01d7.22±0.04a5.98±0.06c6.21±0.09b3.49±0.04f4.28±0.04e?
    總糖(g/L)6.51±0.02e9.18±0.01c9.49±0.06b10.39±0.04a5.14±0.07f7.63±0.04d≤15.0
    出糟率(%)37.26±0.33b18.58±0.12f35.05±0.26c38.14±0.18a34.59±0.20d28.95±0.13e?
    注:數值表示為平均值±標準偏差;同一行中的不同字母根據Duncan測驗(P<0.05)有顯著差異;標準為GB/T 13662-2018《黃酒》非稻米傳統型黃酒標準。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  3  不同酒曲釀制的紅谷黃酒感官品評價

    Table  3.   Sensory evaluation of red millet Huangjiu brewed with different koji

    參數大米紅曲小米紅曲麥曲中藥曲黃酒曲酒藥
    外觀橙紅色朱紅色黃褐色深褐色淺褐色米白色
    香氣濃郁濃郁較濃郁較濃郁濃郁濃郁
    口味爽口爽口爽口較爽口爽口爽口
    風格協調協調較協調協調較協調較協調
    感官評分(分)81.8±10.0a82.8±11.6a72.4±4.2b71.8±4.5b78.5±4.8ab74.9±10.4ab
    注:數值表示為平均值±標準偏差;同一行中的不同字母根據Duncan測驗(P<0.05)有顯著差異。
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  4  不同酒曲樣品細菌和真菌OTU數目

    Table  4.   Number of bacterial and fungal OTUs in different rice wine kojis samples

    樣品JQ1JQ2JQ3JQ4JQ5JQ6
    細菌308346402389306325
    真菌85101118113113101
    下載: 導出CSV

    表  5  不同酒曲細菌和真菌多樣性指數表

    Table  5.   Diversity index of bacteria and fungi in different rice wine kojis samples

    樣品序列數 Shannon指數 ACE指數 Chao 1指數 覆蓋率
    細菌真菌細菌真菌細菌真菌細菌真菌細菌真菌
    JQ17496479409 3.731.10 361.93190.60 366.65151.11 0.9990.9996
    JQ268006796114.860.64382.76152.30391.00147.430.99910.9997
    JQ373705795216.023.02411.07153.38418.50162.400.99960.9995
    JQ471004796714.892.69406.26136.65415.25156.870.99940.9997
    JQ577663790554.912.24332.99131.21349.05144.620.99940.9997
    JQ680141794594.171.64370.06119.40460.14143.000.99940.9997
    總計445483476726
    下載: 導出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-07
  • 網絡出版日期:  2022-08-11
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-11

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