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Optimization of Extraction Process of Aqueous Extract of Rehmannia glutinosa Based on Entropy Weight Method in Cooperation with Analytic Hierarchy Process and Back Propagation Neural Network with Multiple Indicators
ZHU Ziyu, XIE Yuxin, YU Yueting, ZHANG Mei
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120331
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Objective: To optimize the ultrasonic extraction process of aqueous extract of Rehmannia glutinosa based on entropy weight method (EWM) together with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and back propagation neural network (BPNN). Methods: Taking ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio as orthogonal test factors, catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract as indexes, EWM-AHP method was used to determine the weight of each index, to obtain the comprehensive score of multiple indexes. Then, the experimental process conditions were used as the input and the synthesis score was used as the output to build and train a BPNN model to find the best process for the extraction process of Rehmannia glutinosa. Results: The preferred process of BPNN was extraction at 60 ℃ with 33 times of water for 70 min. The mean values of catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract were 17.04, 3.75, 10.57, 24.86 mg/g and 0.82 g/g, respectively, with a combined score of 97.74; The best process of the orthogonal test was extraction at 50 ℃ with 25 times of water for 1 h. The mean values of catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract were 12.72, 2.58, 8.20, 25.02 mg/g and 0.80 g/g, respectively, with a combined score of 97.26. Conclusion: This study determined that the BPNN preferred process was optimal and provided a reference for the application of the EWM-AHP method combined with BPNN in the extraction process.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Conditions of Melleolides from Wild Armillaria mellea and Liquid Culture Mycelium, and Analysis of Their Compounds in Extracts
XU Wei, WANG Zhishuo, WANG Ruiqi, WU Fan, LIANG Shanshan, XIE Hongyao, ZHANG Xue
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050143
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Objective: To analyze the differences of compounds in Armillaria mellea and mycelium, this study was conducted to investigate the optimal extraction process conditions of Melleolides and analyze the compounds in the extracts using northeastern wild Armillaria mellea fruit body and liquid mycelium as the research objects. Methods: The indexes of this study were extracted yield and Melleolides content. Ultrasonic cell crushing-assisted petroleum ether was used for extraction, and the extraction process parameters were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal tests. The compounds in the liquid mycelium and Armillaria mellea fruit body were analyzed and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Results: The optimal extraction process conditions were determined as material-liquid ratio 1:20 g/mL, ultrasonic power 300 W, ultrasonic time 20 min, solvent reflux time 50 min, under which the yield of liquid culture mycelium extract was 26.8% and the content of Melleolides was 0.74 mg/g. 305 and 592 compounds were analyzed and identified in the liquid mycelium and wild Armillaria mellea, respectively. 16 Melleolides and 5 fragments of suspected Melleolides were identified, including 15 Melleolides and 3 fragments in the mycelium, with total contents of 2.551 and 0.588 μg/mL, respectively. 7 Melleolides and 4 fragments in fruit body, with total contents of 2.413 and 2.124 μg/mL, respectively. 6 Melleolides and 2 fragments were found in both; the liquid mycelium had 9 unique Melleolides and 1 fragment: 10-dehydroxymelleoloede, Nectarine, Arnamiol, Bexagliflozin, A52a, 4-dehydroxyarmillarin, 9-(2-Chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione, (4R,5S,7R,9S,13R)-2', 5-epoxy-4-dehydroxyarmillarin, 4'-demethoxyarmillaribin, and fragment C. Wild Armillaria mellea uniquely possessed one Melleolides and two fragments as: Melledonal as well as fragments D and E. Conclusion: The results showed that Melleolides were more abundant in the liquid mycelium than in the fruit body, providing reference for the development of complementary functional foods and drugs.
Study on Salt Reduction of Yeast Extract and Its Application in Broth Powder
XIONG Jian, QIN Xianwu, LI lina, GUO Hui, LI Pei
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120158
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In this paper, several yeast extracts (YE) were taken as the main material to explore their function in salt reduction and effect in reducing salt in stock flavoring powder. Firstly, through physical and chemical index detection of different YE and comparative sensory analysis of saltiness intensity, the optimal effect of salt reduction YE was determined; then the molecular weight distribution of the peptide was detected, and different peptides were applied in the compound salt reduction model solution to explore the mechanism of salt reduction; finally, the effect of salt reducing was verified in the stock flavoring powder. According to the results, it showed that there were differences in salt reduction effect and flavor modification effect of different yeast extracts on low sodium salt, among which strong YE-2 had a better effect of reducing 20% salt in model experiment than other test YE. The components of 1000~2000 Da peptide in dense YE-2 had a significant sense of denseness and effect in saltiness enhancement. The application of strong YE-2 in the seasoning of stock powder could help reduce salt, improve umami taste and strong taste, and enhance the sense of overall coordination. YE products with stronger salt-reducing effect can be developed by increasing the content of 1000~2000 Da peptides in YE-2 products.
Comparative Study on the Nutritional Quality and Flavor Characteristics of Fish Head Soup Prepared by Different Processes
LI Lu, LI Peng, SUN Huijuan, MA Kaihua, MA Lizhen, LI Ling
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
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In order to understand the effects of different processes on the nutritional quality and flavor characteristics of fish head soup, this experiment used the bone and flesh mud of the head of the leather catfish as the raw material, used ordinary boil (OB) and ultrasound-assisted ordinary boil (U-OB), enzymatic hydrolysis (Eh) and ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (U-Eh) four processes to prepare four groups of fish head soup, and nutrition, GC-MS, GC-IMS, and electronic nose were analyzed. The test results showed that the water-soluble protein content of ultrasonic-assisted treatment (U-OB) was significantly higher than that of the non-ultrasonic treatment group (OB); The calcium content and selenium content in the Eh and U-Eh groups were significantly higher compared with OB and U-OB; The amino acid content of Eh and U-Eh was much higher than that of OB and U-OB, but the content of bitter amino acids was higher than that of umami and sweet amino acids. Taurine, carnosine and other substances were also detected in fish head soup. The results of the electronic nose showed that the odors of the four fish head soups were clearly distinguished, and there was no overlap. The U-Eh flavor profile was far away from the other three samples, and the flavor was relatively rich; GC-IMS technology identified 33 substances, mainly aldehydes and ketones. Compared between OB and U-OB and between Eh and U-Eh, their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were similar in type but different in content. The common VOCs among the four groups of samples were only nonanal (dimer), 2-heptanone, nonanal (monomer), all of which had a good modification effect on the flavor of fish head soup.
Quantitative Detection of Adulterated Apple Components in European Sweet Cherries by Droplet Digital PCR
CHEN Jia, QIN Li, LIU Hao, YANG Bo, ZHANG Kaijiang, ZHAO Dongmei, GUO Jinying, ZHANG Yuanyuan
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010002
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Objective: To establish a method for quantitative detection of adulterated apple components in cherry based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Methods: By screening the component specific primer probes of cherry and apple, the quantitative detection method of ddPCR was established. The fitting curve between quality and DNA content and the fitting curve between DNA content and copy number were constructed. Taking DNA content as the intermediate value, the calculation formulas of quality and amplified copy number were obtained. The linear fitting curves R2 were all above 0.99, and the corresponding adulteration model was established to verify the accuracy of the method. Results: The formula for calculating the mass and amplified DNA copy number of cherry and apple: Mcherry=0.0833C?3.8420, Mapple=0.4084C?1.5747. In the adulteration model of cherries and apples, the maximum relative error was ?19.17%, which met the statistical requirements. Conclusion: The establishment of a rapid detection method for European sweet cherry products provides a powerful means to combat the adulteration of European sweet cherries, protects the rights and interests of consumers, and is of great significance for promoting the healthy development of the small berry and its product industry.
Determination of Active Components in the First Physiological Fruit Drop of Citrus From Different Producing Areas by HPLC
LI Yang, AN Qi, SONG Yue, QU Shasha, FAN Gang, REN Jingnan, PAN Siyi
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010076
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In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of nobiletin, tangeretin, hesperidin, naringin, limoninand and synephrine in the first physiological fruit drop of mandarin orange, orange and pomelo from the main Citrus producing areas in China, such as Yichang in Hubei, Huaihua in Hunan, Chaozhou in Guangdong, Nanning in Guangxi, Zhangzhou in Fujian and Quzhou in Zhejiang. The purpose of comparing the characteristics of the content of effective active components in young fruits of Citrus plants from different habitats was to select Citrus cultivars with high nutritional value and rich active components, so as to lay a foundation for further extracting effective components and applying them to all aspects in the future. The results showed that: the contents of nobiletin and hesperidin in tangerine young fruits in Zhejiang Province were the highest, which were 359.63 μg/g and 222.14 μg/g, respectively. The content of naringin in the young fruit of Hubei Changyang grapefruit was the highest, which was 20.97 mg/g. The content of hesperidin in young fruits of Hubei Newhall orange was the highest, which was 1485.73 μg/g. The content of limonin in the young fruit of Guanxi grapefruit in Fujian was the highest, which was 866.73 μg/g. The content of synephrine in the young fruit of fertile orange in Guangxi was the highest, which was 1004.14 μg/g.
Preservation Effect of Ultrasonic-ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride Compound Treatment on Fresh-cut Apples
ZHANG Yuhua, MENG Yi, ZHU Jinfeng, SUN Yi, SUN Chongde
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120133
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In order to improve the quality of fresh-cut apples and prolong the shelf life, the optimal parameters and fresh-keeping effect of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment of fresh-cut apple were explored. Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal parameters of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment of fresh-cut apples with the growth of the total number of colonies as the response value by response surface method. According to the results of the total number of colonies, mold and yeast, color difference and VC content, the fresh-keeping effect of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment on fresh-cut apples during storage was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal parameters of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment for fresh-cut apples were as follows: Ultrasonic time 10 min, ultrasonic temperature 40 ℃, ε-polylysine hydrochloride concentration 0.2 g/L. The actual values of before and after cutting were 1.59 lg CFU/g and 1.71 lg CFU/g, respectively, and the relative errors with the predicted values were 3.92% and 5.59%, respectively, indicating the high degree of fitting and reliability of the models. During storage at 4 ℃, the growth rates of bacteria, mold and yeast in the fresh-cut apples treated with optimized conditions were significantly lower than that in the CK (P<0.05), and VC was not significantly damaged. The color difference rise rate was lower in the ultrasound-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment group before cutting than that of the CK. The combined treatment of fresh-cut apples with ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride optimized by response surface method was feasible, and the effect of ultrasonic treatment before cutting was better, and the shelf life was longer 4 days than that of the CK.
Rapid Detection of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Tegillarca granosa by Temperature-Dependent Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
ZHOU Xinwei, SONG Yanru, ZHANG Zhanshuo, YUAN Leiming, SUN Yiye
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120125
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Objective: To explore a rapid determination method of heavy metal contaminated shellfish based on enzymatic hydrolysis and temperature-dependent near infrared spectroscopy. Methods: Shellfish of Tegillarca granosa was reared artificially and used in this paper. Three heavy metals, including copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were used to contaminate Tegillarca granosa. The full protein supernatant samples of heavy metal-contaminated and healthy Tegillarca granosa were extracted by enzymolysis and centrifugation pretreatments. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was employed to collect spectra of each sample under the process of elevating temperature with each 5 ℃ interval in the range of 25~60 ℃, and a discriminant model was constructed to distinguish these samples contaminated with heavy metals. Results: Partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the heavy metals contaminated Tegillarca granosa under each temperature. The accuracy rate was influenced by the temperature first increasing and then decreasing with raising the temperature. When the temperature of sample was kept at 40 ℃, the accuracy of discriminant model was 92%, and it can be improved up to 98% by the optimized parameters through variable selection methods. Conclusion: With the help of chemo-metrics, near infrared spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis, the heavy metals-contaminated Tegillarca granosa can be quickly identified and the detection methods of heavy metal pollution of shellfish can be enriched.
Analysis on the Difference of the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Northeast Farmhouse Soybean Paste with Different Salt Concentrations
LIU Dongao, XIE Shuangyu, LI Zhi, LI Tianyi, PENG Yuan, SUN Bo
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010003
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This paper studied the influence of salt concentration on the volatile flavor compounds during the fermentation of Northeast farmhouse soybean paste. HS-SPME-GC-MS combined with electronic nose technology were used to analyze the changes of volatile flavor substances and flavor characteristics of soybean paste with different salt concentrations (8%, 10%, 12%) during the fermentation process (0, 30, 60 d). The differences between samples were statistically analyzed through PCA and cluster analysis. The results of HS-SPME-GC-MS showed that there were 2 flavors with OAV≥0.1 at 0 days of fermentation. At the time of 30 days, 8%, 10% and 12% salt concentration samples of flavor substances with OAV≥0.1 increased to 12, 8 and 8, respectively. At the time of 60 days, 8%, 10% and 12% salt concentration samples of the flavor substances with OAV≥0.1 increased to 19, 11 and 10, respectively. And the OAV values of most flavor substances decreased with the increase of salt concentration. This indicated that salt concentration affected the type and content of volatile flavor compounds. The results of the electronic nose showed that the increase in salt concentration would promote the production of organic sulfur compounds and inhibit the production of alkanes, alcohols and hydride compounds. With the extension of the fermentation time, the methyl, alcohol, aldehyde and ketone compounds in the soybean paste would gradually increase, while the ammonia, short-chain alkanes and organic sulfides would gradually decrease. The results of PCA and cluster analysis showed that the difference between samples with different salt concentrations fermented for 0 days was very small, and with the extension of the fermentation time, the difference between the soybean paste with different salt concentrations would become more and more significant. To sum up, the salt concentration has a significant effect on the volatile flavor components in the Northeast farmhouse soybean paste.
Effect of Exogenous γ-Aminobutyric Acid on the Quality and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Metabolism of Fresh-cut Pumpkins
LIANG Jingyi, GUO Fan, ZHAO Ke, WANG Hongfei, XU Feng
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010017
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The effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA synthesis inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP) on GABA metabolism and quality in fresh-cut pumpkin was investigated, and the possible mechanism was studied. The results indicated that exogenous GABA induced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and promoted the conversion of glutamic acid to GABA in fresh-cut pumpkin through the catalytic conversion of highly active glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The 3-MP-treated pumpkin retained lower GABA content than the control, and the activities of GAD and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) were inhibited. The GABA-treated pumpkins possessed relatively lower polyamines (putrescine, spermine and spermidine) contents in comparison with the control during storage. 3-MP treatment restrained the activities of polyamine oxidase (PAO), diamine oxidase (DAO) and amino aldehyde decarboxylase (AMADH). These results demonstrated that GABA treatment could activate the polyamine degradation pathway and promote GABA enrichment in pumpkin. Meanwhile, no significant differences in maximum colony count, color, β-carotene content and soluble solids content were observed among treatments during storage, which suggested that exogenous GABA had little effect on the quality of fresh-cut pumpkin.
Optimization of Preparation of Casein-derived Cholesterol-lowering Peptide by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
LIANG Xiaohui, WANG Xiaozhi, ZHAO Jiayuan, JIN Tingfei, LI Xu, LUO Mengfan, TAN Donghu, LIU Mingzhen, LUO Haibo, GUO Yuxing
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010165
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Casein was hydrolyzed by neutral protease, alkaline protease and trypsin to determine the best protease for preparation of cholesterol-lowering peptide. The effects of hydrolysis pH value, hydrolysis temperature, enzyme to substrate ratio, substrate concentration and hydrolysis time on casein hydrolysis degree and cholesterol micelle solubility inhibition rate were investigated by single factor and response surface experiments, and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. Then the separation process of cholesterol-lowering peptide was determined by ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis tool enzyme was neutral protease, and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were as follows: Reaction temperature 51.3 ℃, enzyme to substrate concentration ratio 6.47%, pH6.34, substrate concentration 5 g/100 mL, reaction time 3.5 h , and cholesterol inhibition rate 58.25%±0.59%; The separation conditions of casein cholesterol-lowering peptide by Sephadex G-10 were as follows: Loading concentration 80 mg/mL, loading volume 2.5 mL, elution rate 3.5 mL/min; The inhibition rates of cholesterol solubility of peak 1 and peak 2 samples were 24.2%±0.24% and 4.3%±0.16% at 100 μg/mL after ultrafiltration and chromatography.
Response Surface Methodology to optimize the Process of making Baking Powder of Cyclocarya paliurus with High Antioxidant Activity using Enzyme-Microorganisms Synergy Method
ZHANG Liang, LIU Yuanjie, YAN Meiting, ZHANG Chaofeng
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110246
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The dried leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus were enzymatically hydrolyzed with complex enzymes (cellulase and hemicellulase). The fermentation solution was fermented by mixed bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and then freeze-dried to prepare Cyclocarya paliurus fermentation powder with high antioxidant activity. Single factor experiment was conducted to study the effects of material-liquid ratio, compound enzyme content, compound enzyme mass ratio, enzymolysis time, sucrose addition, mixed bacteria content, mixed bacteria mass ratio and fermentation time on DPPH free radical scavenging effect of Cyclocarya paliurus fermentation powder. On this basis, Plackett-Burnman (PB) experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the co-fermentation process of cyclocarinase. The results showed that the optimal technological parameters were as follows: Material-liquid ratio 8:100 g/mL, compound enzyme content 0.80%, compound enzyme mass ratio 2.20:1 g/g, enzymolysis time 2.5 h, sucrose addition 8.0%, mixed bacteria content 5.80%, mixed bacteria mass ratio 2:1 g/g, fermentation time 42 h. Under these conditions, the DPPH free radical scavenging rate of Cyclocarya paliurus fermentative powder was 82.17%. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of Cyclocarya paliurus was increased by 159.9%, the polysaccharide content was increased by 194.0%, and the flavonoids content was increased by 72.0%, the content of triterpene in Cyclocarya paliurus increased by 52.6% .This paper has laid a foundation for Intensive processing of Cyclocarya paliurus leaves and industrialization of instant tea powder.
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Future Food
Screening and Verification of Key Genes for Isomaltulose Reducing Liver Fat Accumulation in Mice
HE Qiuling, ZHANG Caiping, GUI Jing, LIU Yongxing, JI Jiuxiu, ZHOU Bo, ZHANG Zhen
2022, 43(16): 1-8.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110090
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In order to screen and verify the key genes that isomaltulose reduces liver fat accumulation in mice, in this study, the Limma package was used to analyze the liver transcriptome data of male mice fed with isomaltose and sucrose for 22 weeks (GSE54723, n=14). A total of 49 DEGs were screened out, and then were analyzed by Metascape software for GO functional enrichment analysis and KEGG signaling pathways analysis. Cytoscape and WGCNA software were used to construct gene co-expression network, overlapping genes were picked up for searching for key node genes, and 10 key node genes Pnliprp1, Prss2, Clps, Tff2, Pnlip, Ctrl, Cpa1, Cel, Dmbt1, Vil1 were screened out, gene functional analysis showed Pnlip, Pnliprp1, Cel, Clps were related to lipid metabolism. The qPCR results showed that the expression of these four genes related to lipid metabolism in liver tissue of isomaltulose group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of sucrose group, by comparing the expression of the above genes in the liver transcriptome data of normal people and NAFLD patients (GSE163211, n=318), Pnlip, Pnliprp1, Cel and Clps were also expressed significantly higher in normal people than in NAFLD patients. This study revealed that isomaltulose promoted lipolysis by up regulating the synthesis of Pnlip, Pnliprp1, Cel and Clps, so as to reduce the accumulation of liver lipids, which would provide a theoretical support for the study of the molecular mechanism of isomaltulose affecting liver lipid metabolism.
Recent Advances on Multi-scale Heat and Mass Transfer of Fruits and Vegetables during the Cold Chain Process
MA Yonghui, LIU Guishan, HE Jianguo, KANG Ningbo, CHEN Shoutao, YIN Junjie, LIU Mengqi, JIA Lili
2022, 43(16): 9-17.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110311
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The process of cold chain of fruits and vegetables can easily cause damage to the internal structure of fruits and vegetables and arouse quality deterioration due to problems such as extensive control and large losses. Meanwhile, the moisture and heat inside the fruits and vegetables would dynamically migrate, which is not a beneficial effect of the storage and sales on fruits and vegetables. Therefore, it is an urgent problem for studying multi-scale heat and mass transfer mechanism in the cold chain process of fruits and vegetables. This paper clarifies the numerical imaging technology for multi-scale modeling of fruits and vegetables, discusses the multi-scale computational fluid dynamics modeling method of heat and mass transfer mechanism in the cold chain process of fruits and vegetables, as well as the basic problems and solutions in modeling, and optimizes the heat and mass transfer models and designs more efficient and reasonable cooling systems, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of the multi-scale heat and mass transfer mechanism, loss reduction and preservation during the cold chain process of fruits and vegetables.
Proteomics Analysis of the Effect of Uracil on Pullulan Polysaccharide Production by Aureobasidium pullulans
CHEN Shiwei, TANG Shuxian, WANG Genan, WU Chengyuan, ZHANG Shuhui, ZHAO Tingbin, YIN Haisong, ZHENG Zhiqiang, QIAO Changsheng
2022, 43(16): 18-25.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120231
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In order to understand the mechanism of uracil on the growth by Aureobasidium pullulans and synthesis of pullulan, the optimal dosage and time of uracil in pullulan polysaccharide fermentation were studied. The label-free quantitative method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to compare the protein components in the late fermentation stage (88 h) by Aureobasidium pullulans and the differential proteins were analyzed by bioinformatics. The results showed that adding 0.5g/L uracil at 48 h had the most significant increasing in pullulan polysaccharide yield, which was verified on 5 L fermenter from 70.13 to 86.27 g/L, increasing by 23%. Protein component analysis identified 80 different proteins, including 40 increases protein and 40 lower protein (difference>2, P<0.05), the protein of the differences of clustering analysis, GO function enrichment, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the differences in protein involved in cellular processes, metabolic processes, and other important biological processes. The differential proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, metabolism of fructose and mannose, metabolism of glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid, pyruvate metabolism and TCA cycle, which ultimately led to the change of pullulan polysaccharide yield. These results would provide a molecular basis for further understanding the metabolic mechanism of pullulan polysaccharides produced by Aureobasidium pullulans.
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Research and Investigation
Effect of Volvariella volvacea Extract on the Intermolecular Force of Beef Myofibrillar Protein during Flavor Adsorption
QING Zhenglong, LIU Xueming, TANG Daobang, LIN Yaosheng, WANG Xuping, YANG Huaigu, ZOU Jinhao, CHENG Jingrong
2022, 43(16): 26-31.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080027
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In order to explore the effect of edible mushroom on the protein flavor adsorption capacity of meat products, beef myofibrillar protein (MP) was treated with Volvariella volvacea extract (VV) and the changes of MP protein intermolecular force and flavor adsorption capacity before and after VV treated were analyzed. The results showed that the extract improved the adsorption capacity of MP to phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde and D-limonene in different degrees. After VV incorporated, the proportion of the above flavor substances in the MP-extract system decreased by 2.09%, 6.1%, 6.41%, 9.85% and 11.66%, respectively, compared with the untreated group. Urea, guanidine hydrochloride, propylene glycol and β-mercaptoethanol were used to destroy the protein interaction force, and it was found that the hydrophobic force between protein molecules played a dominant role in the process of flavor adsorption, followed by hydrogen bond, covalent bond and ionic bond. VV may improve the adsorption capacity of MP on 2-heptanone, 1-octen-3-ol and D-limonene by enhancing the non-covalent bond between MP molecules, and improve the adsorption capacity of MP on benzaldehyde by enhancing the covalent interaction between MP molecules.
Extraction and Purification and Heat-induced Fading Mechanism of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 Phycocyanin
ZHU Linqing, ZENG Mingyong
2022, 43(16): 32-40.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110096
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This paper aimed to study the extraction and purification of phycocyanin from Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (hereinafter referred to as “Synechococcus”) and its heat-induced fading mechanism. Phycocyanin was extracted and purified through high-pressure homogenization, chitosan flocculation and ammonium sulfate salting out. And its fading mechanism during heat treatment (50 ℃, 60 ℃, 70 ℃, 80 ℃, 90 ℃, 30 min) was studied by color index, UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence emission spectrum, particle size and potential, FTIR spectrum and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The results showed that optimal extraction conditions of phycocyanin were to dissolve algal power in 0.04 mol/L NaCl solution to make the concentration reach 2 mg/mL and homogenize it at 80 MPa for 7 min, and the resulting yield of phycocyanin was 10.5081%±0.0936%. After flocculation by 0.15 mg/mL chitosan and salting out by 50% saturated ammonium sulfate, phycocyanin purity could be increased from 0.6950 ± 0.0043 to 1.9084±0.2621. Further research on thermal-induced fading mechanism of phycocyanin found: Destruction of spatial structure of the apoprotein started from 60 ℃, which led to transformation of natural conformation of phycocyanobilin chromophore maintained by protein backbone and a significant decrease in ultraviolet absorption and characteristic fluorescence of phycocyanin, therefore blue hue of phycocyanin was greatly destroyed. Particle size results indicated that phycocyanin molecules began to aggregate at 60 ℃, while larger aggregates formed at 80 ℃ may lead tetrapyrrole chromophore to be buried in it, deepening fading degree of phycocyanin color. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE indicated that β subunit of phycocyanin was probably damaged more serious than α subunit during heat treatment, and the damaged structure were mainly α-helix. In summary, maintaining structural stability of apoprotein or protein segment near the phycocyanin chromophore was the key factor of keeping phycocyanin tone stable during the heat treatment. This research would provide certain theoretical basis for the study of phycocyanin color protection technology during the heat treatment process.
Effect of Key Technology on Texture of Ready-to-eat Crayfish in Soft Packaging
LI Xuehong, LUO Xiaoying, FU Peng, FU Xiaoyan, LI Shugang, SHI Liu, WU Wenjin, DING Anzi, XIONG Guangquan, WANG Lan
2022, 43(16): 41-49.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110129
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In order to explore the effect of key technology on crayfish product quality, crayfish was used as raw material through texture analysis, low field nuclear magnetic resonance and sensory evaluation methods. The water-retaining agent (1%, 1.5% phosphate-free water-retaining agent and 1.2% sodium bicarbonate+4% trehalose), drying conditions (temperature: 70, 80, 90 ℃. Time: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 h) and sterilization conditions (100, 115, 121 ℃, 15 min) on its moisture, texture properties and sensory scores were researched, while to optimize the processing technology of flexible packaged ready-to-eat crayfish and explore the relationship between moisture and texture. The results showed that the addition of water-retaining agent (1.2% sodium bicarbonate+4% trehalose) increased the content of non-flowing water and free water in crayfish meat, significantly improved the water holding capacity of crayfish meat, and reduced crayfish meat hardness (P<0.05), and with the increasing of drying temperature and time, the moisture content of crayfish meat decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the hardness and chewiness increased. While too high sterilization temperature destroyed the internal fiber structure of crayfish meat, resulting in poor chewiness of crayfish meat. The results also showed that the water content of crayfish meat products significantly affected the quality of crayfish products, and the optimum processing conditions of ready-to-eat crayfish were determined, that was, the sensory quality of crayfish meat was better when adding water-retaining agent (1.2% sodium bicarbonate+4% trehalose) and drying at 70 ℃ for 1 h and sterilizing 15 min at 115 ℃, and increased pyrazine compounds which had the unique flavor of fried crayfish. The research results could provide theoretical reference for the quality improvement and industrialization of ready-to-eat crayfish in soft packaging.
Quality Change of Flaxseed Oil during Frying Process
ZHANG Jingjing, WANG Yan, LIU Xiaoxiao, WU Fuxiang, PAN Jianzhong, HU Fangdi
2022, 43(16): 50-58.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110150
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The nutritional composition, physicochemical indexes and harmful substance contents of flaxseed oil during frying process under conventional frying condition were studied in this paper, and its frying performance was comprehensively analyzed by principal component analysis. The results showed that the unsaturation of flaxseed oil without frying was 81.77%. The content of α-linolenic acid was 47.50%, which was a kind of high nutritional value edible oil. During the 60 h (5 d)170 ℃ continuous frying, the color, acid value, peroxide value, refractive index, carbonyl value, polar components, tocopherol content and fatty acid composition of flaxseed oil changed significantly (P<0.05) , and there was no Benzo (α) pyrene produced in the whole frying process. The content of five main fatty acids (α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid) all showed downward trend, and the content of five saturated fatty acids which were below C17:0 (octanoic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) increased gradually with frying time extended, the content of other fatty acids decreased. The analysis of frying performance showed that the acid value of flaxseed oil after 35 h frying had exceeded the national limit, and other indexes were within the national limits. Frying for 30 h had basically reached the frying limit of flaxseed oil. It would not be recommended to use flaxseed oil for frying beyond the limit, it would be a healthy frying oil within 30 h.
Effect of Xanthan Gum on the Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Citral Pickering Emulsion Film
LI Xuehong, GAO Suli, YU Guoqiang, ZANG Kai, WANG Chen, WANG Xiangfan, DING Hongying
2022, 43(16): 59-64.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110164
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In this paper, the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion of citral was prepared by a high-speed homogenization method with β-cyclodextrin as emulsifier and xanthan gum as external phase stabilizer, and the emulsion obtained was mixed with chitosan solution to make citral emulsion film by the casting method, then the effects of xanthan gum on the preparation and characteristics of the emulsion film were investigated. The results showed that the addition of 0.2% and 0.4% xanthan gum in the emulsion could reduce the particle size of citral droplets in the film from 2.06 μm to 0.71 and 0.61 μm, respectively, effectively increase the distribution density of oil droplets and prevent the occurrence of oil separation in the process of emulsion film making, and at the same time, the light transmittance of the emulsion film increased from 39% to 43%~44%. Compared with the films without xanthan gum, although the water vapor permeability of the films with 0.2% and 0.4% xanthan gum was increased from 12.02 g·mm/(dm2kPa) to 13.58 and 14.32 g·mm/(dm2kPa), respectively, the tensile strength of the film was improved from 5.85 MPa to 6.96 and 8.77 MPa, respectively, and the elongation at break of the film was also enhanced from 28.87% to 29.43% and 32.16%, respectively, indicating that the addition of xanthan gum in the emulsion could significantly improve the mechanical properties while also reduced the moisture resistance of the film. The citral release experiment of the film showed that the addition of xanthan gum could enhance the slow release effect of citral from the emulsion film.
Phytochemical Composition and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Campanumoea lancifolia (Roxb.) Merr Fruit
HUANG Chunyue, MA Mengjie, NIU Lixin, JIN Jianjie, WU Man, TIAN Bei, HU Xiao
2022, 43(16): 65-73.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110169
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Hong Guo Shen Guo (HGSG) are the fruits of Campanumoea lancifolia (Roxb.) Merr, which are mainly cultivated in Southwest China. This study was to investigate the ingredients from HGSG extracts and their α-glucosidase inhibition in vitro. The contents of polysaccharide, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols in extracts from HGSG were measured using UV spectrophotometry. Chemical ingredients were further analyzed applying ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). The results showed that the content of crude polysaccharide in five batches of HGSG was 27.59%~37.59%. The total flavone content of ethanol extract was 1.22%~1.77%, the total anthocyanin content was 0.90%~1.14%, and the total polyphenol content was 13.11%~18.85%. Twenty one compounds were identified from HGSG, including 10 flavonoids, 3 phenolic acids, 3 organic acids, 3 anthocyanins, 1 amino acid and 1 polyacetylene. The ethanol extract, crude polysaccharide and luteolin of HGSG exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 7.52, 37.43 and 8.03 μg/mL, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of acarbose (616.17 μg/mL). This study preliminarily defined the material basis of HGSG, and reported for the first time that HGSG had potential anti diabetes activity, which would provide a theoretical reference for the development and utilization of HGSG.
Immobilization of Cellulase by Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
WANG Lin, LIU Rongxu, LIU Danyi, WANG Yucong, HAN Jianchun
2022, 43(16): 74-80.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110183
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The design of enzyme-carrier complexes with high stability and selectivity is the focus of research in the field of immobilized enzymes. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation using epichlorohydrin as surfactant and coated with chitosan to immobilize cellulase. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR infrared spectroscopy) were used to characterize Fe3O4 chitosan magnetic nanoparticles, and the characterization and enzymatic properties of immobilized cellulase were studied. Results showed that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles were crystallographically intact and the cellulase was effectively immobilized on the Fe3O4-chitosan carrier surface. In addition, immobilised cellulase had better acid-base stability and thermal stability than free cellulase. It had good activity in the range of pH2~9, and also with better thermostability, remained nearly 50% activity for 4 h at 60 and 70 ℃. After 10 cycles of recycling, the immobilized cellulase remained at a high activity of 52.6%, indicating that Fe3O4-chitosan could be used as an effective carrier for immobilized cellulase, providing a reference for further applications of the immobilized enzyme.
Effects of Refining on Konjac Glucomannan and Gel Properties of Its Blend with κ-Carrageenan
JIAO Xiaojia, DENG Kunxin, WEI Huiting, XU Lingling, ZHU Yanbing, LIN Kuncheng, JIANG Zedong, NI Hui, LI Qingbiao, ZHENG Mingjing
2022, 43(16): 81-89.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110184
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Refined conditions of konjac glucomannan (KGM), physicochemical properties and structural characterization of KGM before and after refining and its blend with κ-carrageenan were explored in this study. Furthermore, the correlation between physicochemical properties of KGM and gel properties of the blend was also determined. The result showed that refined conditions of KGM were as follows: Refined ethanol concentration 60%, swelling time 2 h, swelling temperature 50 ℃. With this treatment, the glucomannan content, viscosity, brightness and whiteness of KGM were increased by 34.43%, 128.55%, 17.94% and 28.29%, respectively. Gel strength, hardness, chewiness and gumminess of its blend with κ-carrageenan were significantly increased by 47.39%, 60.47%, 55.44%, and 45.87%(P < 0.05), respectively. The best gel properties of the blend were obtained with the enhanced hydrogen bond force, smoother and tighter gel network structure. In addition, physicochemical properties of KGM e.g. glucomannan content, viscosity, color and flavor were considered to be the key factors to improve quality of the blend gel. This study could provide an efficient and simple refined method for development of KGM and carrageenan blend with high gel strength, and lay a theoretical foundation for the industrial production of refined KGM in future.
Effects of Heat Treatment and Antioxidant Tert-Butylhydroquinone Pretreatment on Digestive Characteristics of Meat Oil of Antarctic Krill
QI Yuli, GAO Cuizhu, WANG Jihui, LIU Yujia
2022, 43(16): 90-97.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120069
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In order to study the effects of heat treatment and antioxidant addition on the digestive characteristics of meat oil of Antarctic krill, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model was established to measue the changes of peroxide value, acid value, malondialdehyde content, astaxanthin content and fatty acid composition of the oil in untreated blank group, 85 ℃ heat treatment group and 85 ℃ heat treatment with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) group after digestion. The results showed as follows: After gastrointestinal digestion, the peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oil in blank group significantly increased (P<0.05), while astaxanthin content significantly decreased (P<0.05), fatty acid composition had no significant change, indicating that gastrointestinal digestion could accelerate the primary and secondary oxidation processes of oil. The changes of peroxide value, malondialdehyde content, acid value, astaxanthin content and fatty acid composition of oil digested by gastrointestinal tract in the 85 ℃ heat treatment group were basically consistent with that in the blank group. However, compared with the blank group, the malondialdehyde content in the 85 ℃ heat treatment group was significantly higher than that in the blank group after intestinal digestion (P<0.05), indicating that the 85 ℃ heat treatment accelerated the secondary oxidation process of lipid digestion. The changes of peroxide value, malondialdehyde content, acid value, astaxanthin content and fatty acid composition in TBHQ group after gastrointestinal digestion were basically consistent with those in 85 ℃ heat treatment group. However, after digestion by gastrointestinal tract, the peroxide value and malondialdehyde content decreased, indicating that TBHQ played an antioxidant role in this process. These results indicated that the gastrointestinal digestion process promoted the oxidation of meat oil of Antarctic krill, and heat treatment intensified the secondary oxidation process of meat oil of Antarctic krill in the gastrointestinal tract, and the addition of TBHQ could effectively slow down the oxidation of oil caused by heat treatment in the gastrointestinal tract.
Preparation and Stability of Nanoparticles Containing Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis
YUAN Qiaoyue, WU Fan, WANG Xiaozhi, ZHAO Xuan, CUI Li, LUO Haibo, TAO Mingxuan, LIU Chen, GUO Yuxing
2022, 43(16): 98-104.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120295
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In order to improve the stability and water solubility of astaxanthin, the snailase was used for the wall-breaking extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, and gum arabic and whey protein powder (rich in milk fat globule membrane) were used as wall materials to prepare astaxanthin nanoparticles using a complex coacervation method, in addition, the stability of the nanoparticles was investigated. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the preparation of astaxanthin nanoparticles were pH4.0, protein/gum arabic mass ratio of 2:1 and astaxanthin concentration of 60 μmol/L. The encapsulation rate of astaxanthin under these conditions was 92.93%±0.19%. The average particle size was 265.71±0.55 nm and the Zeta potential was ?13.44±0.14 mV. The nanoparticles showed good storage stability with only 6.1% increased in size, 90.78%±0.25% retention of astaxanthin and 79.31%±0.18% clearance of DPPH after 15 d storage at 4 ℃. This study would improve the stability and water solubility of astaxanthin and provide technical support for the efficient utilization of astaxanthin.
Effects of Ultrasound Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Function of Adzuki Bean Protein
AN Yu, ZHOU Xinyu, WANG Ying, ZUO Zhaohang, SUN Wei, ZHANG Naidan, PANG Weiqiao
2022, 43(16): 105-110.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010266
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Using defatted adzuki bean protein as raw material, the effects of different ultrasonic power and time on the physical and chemical properties and antioxidant function of adzuki bean protein were studied by using hydrolysis degree, foaming ability and total antioxidant capacity. After treatment with ultrasonic power of 400 W for 20 min, the hydrolysis degree and solubility of adzuki bean protein reached the maximum value, which increased from 3.39% to 21.30% and 46.77% to 79.63%, respectively. Emulsification and emulsification stability were significantly enhanced (P<0.05) and increased by 78.62%, 43.94% respectively after ultrasonic power 400 W treatment for 10 min. Compared with the blank control, when the ultrasonic power was 400 W for 10 min, the foaming ability of adzuki bean protein was the best, increased by 70.31%. When the ultrasonic power was unchanged, and the ultrasonic power extended to 20 min, the foaming stability was the strongest, increased by 11.15%. Ultrasonic treatment significantly increased the content of free sulfhydryl group (P<0.05), disulfide bond content significantly decreased (P<0.05). The total antioxidant capacity was the best (681.20 U/mL) when ultrasonic power was 160 W for 30 min, DPPH radical scavenging capacity and Fe ion reducing capacity were the best when ultrasonic power was 400 W for 10 min, which increased by 78.23% and 33.52%, respectively. Ultrasonic treatment could significantly improve the physical and chemical properties of adzuki bean protein and its antioxidant capacity.
Effect of Chinese Cooking Techniques on Comprehensive Quality of Chicken Breast
JIN Jinhua, LIU Jian, JIN Danli, QI Xiangcao, WANG Xingxing, CHEN Yuewen, CHEN Jie, TIAN Shiyi, ZHU Xuan, HAN Jianzhong
2022, 43(16): 111-118.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050125
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The fresh chicken breast which was used as the research object was treated by frying, stir-frying, boiling and steaming. The effect of the four Chinese cooking techniques on texture, cooking loss rate, microstructure, electronic nose analysis, amino acid and fatty acid composition were studied. And the effect of the four Chinese cooking techniques on protein and fat oxidation were studied by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Meanwhile, in vitro digestion simulation method was used to research the change of protein digestibility. The results showed that, the cooking loss rate of fried chicken breast was the highest. The values of hardness and TBARS were highest in boiled chicken breast, which were 1531.55 and 6.01 mg MDA/kg, respectively. The value of TVB-N was highest in steamed chicken breast, which was 11.00 mg N/100g, and the sarcomeres and muscle fibers were more closely arranged. The electronic nose analysis showed that the difference of the volatile flavor of chicken breast in four groups was not significant (P>0.05). The total content of amino acid and fatty acid were both highest in fried chicken breast, which were 31.89 g/100 g and 11.65 g/100 g, respectively, and it had the most kinds of fatty acid. The in vitro digestion model showed that the pepsin digestibility of fried chicken breast was highest, which was 28.41%, but the pepsin digestibility of stir-fried chicken breast was lowest, which was 8.59%.
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Bioengineering
Exploration and Performance Evaluation of Probiotic Microcapsule Technology for Longevity Elderly Based on RBF-GA
LI Ruiding, WANG Wenxuan, ZHANG Yuhe, ZHOU Fan, ZHENG Wenxuan, ZHANG Qinren, MENG Ning, SHI Fengcui, LI Quanyang
2022, 43(16): 119-129.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110155
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The activity of probiotic products would reduce to a certain extent during storage and in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in weakened potential probiotic properties, in this study, Lactobacillus fermentum LTP1332 from the feces of centenarians in Bama, Guangxi was microencapsulated. In this experiment, gelatin (GEL) and chitosan (CS) were introduced for compounding based on sodium alginate (SA) and CaCl2 as the main wall materials. The key factors affecting the embedding rate were found by single-factor test, the radial basis function (RBF) was constructed by using Box-Behnken design (BBD), and the encapsulation process of Lactobacillus fermentum LTP1332 microcapsules was optimized by using genetic algorithms (GA). The optimized capsules were characterized using SEM scanning electron microscopy and other methods, and the in vitro simulated digestion tests was carried out. Results showed that, the optimum preparation parameters of the microcapsule were as follows: 2.210% sodium alginate, 4.451% CaCl2, 0.1% gelatin, 13.529 min curing time. Under such conditions, the measured average embedding rate was 95.08%±0.25%. The cell survival rate of CS-GEL-SA microcapsule under the optimized processing conditions could still reach 22.48%±0.78% after being treated with simulated gastric juice for 120 min. The maximum rate of probiotic release could be reached at 90 min of digestion with simulated intestinal juice, which had good intestinal solubility. Therefore, it is considered that the long-lived elderly source probiotic microcapsule prepared under this processing condition would have a good bacterial protection effect and good prospects in development and application.
Properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage K4 and Its Applications in Food Preservation
PANG Wenjing, HAN Qingzhu, YOU Jiajia, LI Donghang, LI Peize, LI Yueying, YANG Hongjiang
2022, 43(16): 130-139.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110193
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Objective: To study phage applications in the control of bacteria contaminations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage K4 was characterized for its biological characteristics and inhibition effects of bacterial growth. Methods: One-step growth curve, phage stability, genome sequencing, comparative genomics analysis, and growth inhibition curve were conducted in this work. Results: One-step growth curve showed that phage K4 had a latent phase of 15 min and a burst size of about 85 PFU/infection center, displaying a strong infectivity. Under different MOIs (multiplicity of infection), phage K4 efficiently inhibited the growth of the host cells. Genomic analysis revealed that phage K4 had a genome of 50358 bp with 77 coding sequences and 1 tRNA-Arg gene. Comparative genomics showed that the genome of phage K4 shared an identity of 95.08% with Pseudomonas virus PA11 which belongs to the Paundecimvirus genus of the Zobellviridae family, suggesting that phage K4 might be a new member of the Paundecimvirus genus. In application assays, phage K4 could significantly control the growth of the host cells in sterilized milk and ready-to-eat beef samples along with obvious reproductions of phage K4. In conclusion, the data suggested that phage K4 was a lytic virus that replicated rapidly with relatively high bactericidal activity. Conclusion: The genome of phage K4 did not carry genes for integration, antibiotic resistance, and virulence, appropriately to be selected as a biocontrol agent in the control and prevention of P. aeruginosa contaminations in foods.
Analysis of Microorganism Changes in Origin Pre-processing of Chopped Pepper Based on Illumina Miseq Sequencing Technology
CHEN Mengjuan, JIANG Liwen, LIU Yang, WANG Rongrong, ZHOU Hui, ZHAO Lingyan, QIN Yeyou
2022, 43(16): 140-147.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110259
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Based on the Illumina Miseq sequencing technology, the bacterial and fungal flora of the fresh Chaotian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the line pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) in Shandong and Shanxi province were sequenced during origin pre-processing. The diversity of bacterial and fungal community structure was analyzed, and the rationality and scientific of processing technology in different producing areas were also discussed. The results showed that the bacterial and fungal flora attached to the raw materials of the two red peppers were significantly different (P<0.05). After salting process, there were still significant differences in bacterial flora between the two kinds of pepper, while the differences in fungal flora gradually decreased with the progress of processing. According to the results of the count of cultivable microorganisms, the number of cultivable bacteria and fungi in the line pepper samples increased to 2.6×106 and 1.6×106 CFU/g after two-stage cleaning. However, in Chaotian pepper samples, the number of culturable bacteria and fungi after cleaning decreased to 9.0×104 and 6.6×103 CFU/g, respectively. It indicated that the same equipment was used to clean the line pepper with low applicability, resulting in the accumulation of microorganisms during the cleaning process. After salt mixing, the number of culturable bacteria and fungi decreased to 102~104 CFU/g. This study would reveal the community structure and diversity of microorganism during the primary processing of fresh red pepper, and provide a scientific basis for improving the processing level, the optimization of equipment, and quality control.
Microbial Diversity in Six Kinds of Huangjiu Koji Based on High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques
GU Xiaodong, LIU Yilin, XI Xiaoli, CHEN Zhizhou, MA Yanli, LIU Xu, WANG Yinzhuang, LI Suping
2022, 43(16): 148-157.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120063
Abstract(11) HTML(1) PDF(1)
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In this study, six kinds of Huangjiu koji were used as raw materials to study the microbial community structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi by using high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that the bacterial community structure and fungal community structure of rice red koji (JQ1) and millet red koji (JQ2) were similar, the bacterial community structure of wheat koji (JQ3), traditional Chinese medicine koji (JQ4) and alcohol medicine (JQ6) were similar, and the fungal community structures of JQ3, JQ4 and sweet koji (JQ5) were similar. At the gate level, Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum of JQ2, JQ3, JQ4 and JQ6. The dominant bacteria of JQ1 and JQ5 were Proteobacteria. The dominant fungal phylum of 6 kinds of koji was Ascomycota. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the dominant genus of JQ1, Bifidobacterium was the dominant genus of JQ2, uncultured_bacterium_o_Chloroplast was the dominant genus of JQ3 and JQ5, Virgibacillus was only the dominant genus of JQ4, and Staphylococcus was the dominant genus of JQ6. The dominant fungi in JQ1 were Cyberlindnera, Monascus in JQ2, Aspergillus in JQ3 and JQ5, Xeromyces in JQ4 and Rhizopus in JQ6. It was suggested that, the microbial community structure of six kinds of koji were quite different at the gate and genus level, which would provide a theoretical reference for the follow-up screening of red millet Huangjiu koji.
Effect of Lactobacillus casei HDS-01 on the Quality Index and Bacterial Community Structure of Sauerkraut
WANG Xu, CAO Chunzhen, YANG Zhixin, PAN Yue, SONG Gang
2022, 43(16): 158-166.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010240
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Lactobacillus casei HDS-01, isolated from spent brine from sauerkraut, was added to construct a microbial ecosystem for sauerkraut fermentation. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), acid-base titration, high-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR were adopted in combination with traditional enzymatic analysis to investigate the dynamic changes of physicochemical properties and bacterial communities during sauerkraut fermentation. Meanwile, sensory quality and safety of the sauerkraut were evaluated. Results showed that the pH of fermented sauerkraut with L. casei HDS-01 decreased to 3.15±0.08 on the third day and the lactic acid bacteria count was (7.63±0.19) lg CFU/mL at the beginning of fermentation. The key enzyme activities of the lactic acid metabolic pathway were higher in all periods of L. casei HDS-01 fermented sauerkraut than in natural fermented sauerkraut (P<0.05). At the end of fermentation, the lactic acid, total acid and VC contents were (7.88±0.38), (8.45±0.38) g/L and (445.02±10.53) mg/kg, respectively, and the nitrite content was (1.55±0.86) mg/kg. Sensory evaluation of sauerkraut samples showed that L. casei HDS-01 fermented sauerkraut was superior to naturally fermented sauerkraut in terms of clarity of fermentation broth, color, aroma, taste and crispness of sauerkraut. In addition, Lactobacillus remained consistently dominant in L. casei HDS-01 fermented sauerkraut (63.36% to 95.79%), reducing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter spp. (0.04% to 2.26%) and Pseudomonas spp. (0.28% to 25.84%), which regulated the diversity of flora and shortened the fermentation process. This study would have important practical significance for the development of strain resources and functional bacteria for fermentation.
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Processing Technology
Optimization of Fermentation Process and Quality Analysis of Buckwheat Vinegar Fermented by Kombucha
HAN Ying, WANG Qian, HOU Chenzi, BU Xianpan, TANG Dejian, ZHAO Yu
2022, 43(16): 167-175.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100158
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In this study, buckwheat syrup was used as the raw material and was fermented by kombucha to produce the buckwheat vinegar. Based on the total acid content and the sensory score of buckwheat vinegar, the effects of different content of soluble solid, inoculation amount of kombucha and fermentation temperature on the quality of buckwheat vinegar were investigated, and the optimal process conditions for buckwheat syrup fermentation by kombucha were determined. Subsequently, the buckwheat vinegar was fermented under these optimal technological conditions, changes in pH value, total acids, total phenols, total flavonoids as well as organic acids of buckwheat syrup during the fermentation process were explored. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions of buckwheat vinegar by kombucha were as follows: Soluble solid content was 13%, kombucha fungus inoculation amount was 15%, fermentation temperature was 30 ℃. Under this optimized condition, during the fermentation process, pH was decreased, the total acid was increased, the reducing sugar content was increased first and then decreased, the total phenol content was increased, the flavonoid content was decreased first and then increased, the contents of acetic acid, lactic acid and succinic acid increased, while the contents of malic acid and malonic acid increased first and then decreased. After 9 days of fermentation, the total acid, total phenol and total flavonoid contents of the obtained buckwheat vinegar were 32.96, 1.72 and 2.55 g/L, respectively. The final vinegar had suitable acidity, soft taste, strong buckwheat aroma, and health care function.
Deep Eutectic Solvents Extraction and Optimization of Amentoflavone from Selaginella moellendorffii
LIU Chao, LI Weiwei, LEI Jie, LI Gang, LU Demin, XU Dajun, SHENG Xiaona, WU Mingjiang, WANG Gang
2022, 43(16): 176-184.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100160
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To extract the amentoflavone (AME) from Selaginella moellendorffii with deep eutectic solvent technology, three kinds of deep eutectic solvents were prepared by one-step method, and the best deep eutectic solvent for extracting AME of Selaginella moellendorffii was selected. The results of the clear magnetic resonance, fourier infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the deep eutectic solvent was successfully prepared. The extraction process of AME from Selaginella moellendorffii was optimized by single factors and response surface method. Results showed that, the best deep eutectic solvent was choline chloride:geraniol. The best extraction conditions were molar ratio 1:2, water content 20%, liquid-solid ratio 10 mL/g, ultrasound time 31 min, and the ultrasonic power was 240 W. Under this condition, the actual content of AME was (2.75±0.12) mg/g. The results of comparison with hot immersion method, cold immersion method, ionic liquid ultrasonic extraction method and ethanol ultrasonic extraction method showed that the deep eutectic solvent combined with ultrasonic extraction could not only save the extraction time, but also significantly increase the AME extraction rate.
Preparation and Quality Analysis of Lentinula edodes Flavored Milk Tablets
GUO Liucheng, DU Liyue, WANG Fei
2022, 43(16): 185-191.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100283
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Using fresh Lentinus edodes and milk powder as the main materials, the Lentinus edodes flavored milk tablets was prepared through processes such as mixing, granulating, drying, granulating and tableting. With sensory score, tablet weight variation, hardness and brittleness as evaluation indicators, the orthogonal test was carried out on the basis of single factor experiment to optimize the amount of Lentinula edodes powder, oligomeric isomaltose, glucose and magnesium stearate of the formula of Lentinula edodes flavored milk tablets. The results showed that the best formula of Lentinula edodes flavored milk tablets were: Milk powder 100 g, Lentinula edodes powder 50 g, oligomeric isomaltose 16 g, glucose 9 g and magnesium stearate 0.7%. The Lentinula edodes flavored milk tablets which prepared by this formula had a smooth surface, and had the flavours of Lentinula edodes and milk. Compared with commercially available milk tablets, the Lentinula edodes milk tablets contained higher crude protein and lower crude fat. And it was rich in crude cellulose and flavonoids, with richer nutrients and higher antioxidant activity.
Ultrasonic Pre-treatment for the Preparation of ACE-inhibitory Peptides from the Tea Residue Protein through Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Stability
DAI Cheng, TAN Ziming, ZHANG Yang, LI Lu, LI Yan, XIE Xin'an
2022, 43(16): 192-200.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100286
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, and inhibition of its activity is beneficial to maintain blood pressure balance. Food-derived ACE inhibitory peptides have attracted wide attention due to their safety and easy absorption. This study aimed to obtain a new peptide of high ACE inhibitory activity from tea residue protein. With the ACE inhibitory rate of ACE inhibitory peptides as the index, ultrasonic pre-treatment of tea residue protein was the best method through comparison of three ultrasonic methods. Response surface optimization was used to determine the optimal ultrasonic pretreatment parameters based on the single-factor tests. The enzymatic solution was separated and purified by ultrafiltration, and the stability of components with molecular weight less than 3 kDa was analyzed. The results showed that the optimum ultrasonic pretreatment conditions were ultrasonic power 300 W, ultrasonic temperature 45 °C, ultrasonic time 25 min. Under the optimal conditions, the ACE inhibitory activity was 64.8%, which was 10.7% higher than 54.1% in the control group (without ultrasonic). When the molecular weight cut-off was less than 3 kDa, the inhibition rate of ACE inhibitory peptide was 82.3%, which was 17.5% higher than that of the original hydrolysate. When the temperature rose from 30 to 90 oC, the inhibition rate of ACE inhibitory peptide decreased from 82.3% to 78.3%. The peptide showed stable ACE inhibition rate in pH and salt solution. The inhibition rate of ACE inhibitory peptide decreased from 82.3% to 62.3% after 8 h in simulated digestion environment.
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Decolorization Process of Polysaccharides from Mori fructus and Its Antioxidant Activity
QIAN Yanfang, SHI Chenying, CHEN Guitang
2022, 43(16): 201-210.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110007
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The ultrasound-assisted extraction, resin decolorization process and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Mori fructus (MFPs) were investigated in this work. The effects of ultrasonic extraction temperature, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasonic time and ultrasonic power on extraction yield of MFPs were investigated by single factor and orthogonal test. Taking decolorization rate as index, the effects of decolorization time, concentration of polysaccharide solution and decolorization temperature were investigated by single factor and orthogonal test. ABTS assay, DPPH assay, phenanthroline method and pyrogallol autoxidation reaction were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions were ultrasonic temperature 50 ℃, solid-liquid ratio 1:30 g/mL, ultrasonic time 70 min and ultrasonic power 500 W. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of MFPs was 4.59%±0.25%. The optimal decolorization conditions were decolorization time 5 h, concentration of MFPs solution 4 mg/mL and decolorization temperature 25 ℃. Under these conditions, the decolorization rate was 62.34%±1.27%. MFPs had strong scavenging ability on ABTS+ radical, DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical with half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.14, 0.68, 0.19 and 3.14 mg/mL, respectively.
Pressure Difference Puffing Process of Surimi-Starch Chips
WANG Dandan, WANG Lan, LI Jiangtao, SHI Liu, WU Wenjin, DING Anzi, XIONG Guangquan, HAN Wenfang
2022, 43(16): 211-219.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110108
Abstract(39) HTML(9) PDF(18)
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Using glutinous rice flour and surimi as main raw materials, surimi-starch chips were prepared by pressure difference puffing technology. Using hardness, brittleness, puffing rate, color and sensory scores as evaluation indicators, the effects of surimi addition, fat addition, salt addition, sugar addition and drying time on the quality of surimi-starch chips were discussed. The results showed that with the increasing of surimi content, the expansion rate of crisps decreased and the hardness increased. With the increasing of oil content, the expansion rate and whiteness of crisps increased. With the increasing of sugar content, the whiteness of crisps increased. With the increasing of salt content, the puffing rate of chips decreased. Under different drying time, the puffing rate, texture, color and sensory of chips changed significantly. Finally, the process parameters of surimi-starch chips were 25% surimi addition, 5% fat addition, 1.2% salt addition, 1.2% sugar addition, and 3.5 h of drying.
Optimization of Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Different Enzymolysis Peptides
CONG Zhihui, LI Di, ZHOU Fating, LIU Mengya, ZHANG Bangkui, MA Li, FU Le, ZHANG Yuhao, GU Xin
2022, 43(16): 220-229.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110117
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In order to utilize lemon seed resources effectively , the antioxidant activities of its protein and enzymolysis peptide were studied. Lemon seed protein(LSP) was extracted from lemon seed meal powder with the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction process of LSP and analyze its amino acid composition. Papain, trypsin, compound protease and flavor protease were applied on the enzymatic hydrolysis of LSP. The antioxidant capacity (scavenging capacity of 1,1- diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl radical ($\mathrm{D}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{H}\cdot$), hydroxyl radical($\cdot \mathrm{O}\mathrm{H}$) and superoxide anion(${\mathrm{O}}_{2}^{-}\cdot$)) of the enzymatic hydrolysate was studied, and the infrared spectrum analysis of the above four enzymatic peptides was carried out. The results showed that, the optimum extraction conditions of LSP were as follows: pH was 10.5, extraction time was 60 min, liquid-to-material ratio was 41:1 mL/g, and extraction temperature was 40 ℃. Under these conditions, the actual extraction rate of protein from lemon seed reached 12.25% ± 0.01%. The essential amino acids of LSP were complete in variety, accounting for 31.8% of the total amino acids. The flavor protease-hydrolyzed peptide had strong antioxidant capacity. The IC50 of papain enzymolysis peptide, trypsin-hydrolyzed peptide, peptide of compound protease and peptide of flavourzyme against DPPH free radical scavenging was 3.54, 1.75, 1.52 and 1.02 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 against $\cdot \mathrm{O}\mathrm{H}$ free radical scavenging was 8.77, 8.92, 8.29 and 5.02 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 against $\cdot \mathrm{O}\mathrm{H}$ free radical scavenging was 2.70, 0.90, 0.97 and 0.81 mg/mL. Theinfrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis suggested that all four samples had absorption peaks near 3400, 1600, 1300, and 1000 cm-1, and contained functional groups with antioxidant activity. The study considered that LSP had high antioxidant activity and nutritional value, and could be used as a functional component in the development of antioxidant-related functional foods and health care products.
Optimization of Deep Eutectic Solvent-Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction and Component Analysis of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shells
ZHANG Xiaoyun, MEI Xiaohong
2022, 43(16): 230-237.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110123
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In this study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) coupled with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were applied to extract polyphenol from chestnut shells and the components were identified. Eight different DESs were evaluated as candidate solvents and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydrogen bond acceptor and hydrogen bond donor. Based on the single factor experiments, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied, ultrasonic power, liquid-solid ratio and water content were further evaluated in order to optimize the total ployphenol yield. Besides, the extracts were recovered by macroporous resin for the identification of phenolic compounds. As a result, DES-1 (choline chloride:oxalic acid=1:1) exhibited a highest extraction yield. After that, DES-1-based UAE process was optimized and the optimal conditions were as follows: Ultrasonic power 348 W, liquid-solid ratio 42:1 mL/g and water content 32%. The extraction yield (99.66±2.63) mg/g of the model validation experiment was demonstrated to be in accordance with the predicted value 99.44 mg/g, which was significantly higher than that obtained by using traditional solvents (water and 40% ethanol). In addition, phenolic compounds was efficiently recovered from DES extracts with high recovery yield (97.92%±1.78%) by using AB-8 macroporous resin. 13 phenolic compounds were preliminarily identified from DES-1-based UAE extracts by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. In conclusion, this study would provide a green and efficient method to extract polyphenols from chestnut shells, providing technical support for the development and utilization of chestnut shells waste.
Stability and Rheological Properties of Chia Compound Sesame Paste
SHI Mengjiao, SUN Hanju, YUAN Chuanxun, JIN Risheng, SHEN Yang, SHEN Yuan
2022, 43(16): 238-245.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110269
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The low-fat stabilized compound sesame paste was prepared with pure sesame paste and chia seed extract as the main raw materials, and with monoglyceride and sucrose ester as emulsifier. Taking centrifugal oil yield and hardness as evaluation indicators, single factor experiments were conducted to study the effects of emulsifier addition, compound ratio of monoglyceride and sucrose ester , stirring time, and stirring temperature on the stability of compound sesame paste. On this basis, the response surface optimization and the research on the rheological properties of the product were conducted. Results showed that, adding 5% chia seed extract could effectively reduce the crude fat content of pure sesame paste by 10.82%. The oil yield of the compound sesame paste could be reduced to 2.61%, much lower than that of pure sesame paste, and the overall sensory experience could be upgraded, on the condition that the added amount of emulsifier was 1.6%, the compound ratio of monoglyceride to sucrose ester was 2.6:1, the stirring temperature was 71 ℃, and the stirring time was 9.5 min. The chia compound sesame paste was a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid, and the temperature had a low effect on its viscosity. The stability of the compound sesame paste was better than that of the current sesame paste on the market.
Optimization of Polyphenol Extraction Process, Analysis of Components and Antioxidant Activity of Jujube
MA Ni, LIU Huiyan, FANG Haitian, HU Haiming, XIN Shihua, YANG Xiaoping, LIU Hongtao
2022, 43(16): 246-254.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110283
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The polyphenol compounds in red jujube were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction process. The methanol concentration, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic temperature and solid-liquid ratio were selected to conduct the single factor experiments. On this basis, the response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters, and the high-resolution liquid-mass spectrometer was used to determine the polyphenol components in red jujube to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the polyphenol based on its ability to remove DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. The results showed that, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: Methanol concentration 70%, ultrasonic time 40 min, ultrasonic temperature 60℃, solid-liquid ratio 1:40 (g/mL). Under these conditions, the polyphenol yield was 1.397%±0.08%. A high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 19 components in jujube polyphenols, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonoids and triterpenoids. The results of antioxidant experiments showed that the maximum clearance of DPPH was 77.63% when the polyphenol concentration of jujube was 0.3 mg/mL. The maximum clearance of superoxide anion radical was 82.48% when the concentration was 0.8 mg/mL, and with the increasing of polyphenol concentration, the clearance was close to VC, indicating that the polyphenol compound extracted from jujube had strong antioxidant activity and was a natural antioxidant with great development potential.
Research on Deastringency of Raw Chestnut Rose Juice and Preparation of Its Blended Fruit-Vegetable Juice with Pear and Pumpkin
JIN Jiaxing, ZHANG Haijuan, YUE Hualing, SONG Yan, ZHANG Hongxia, LIAO Hongmei
2022, 43(16): 255-262.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110290
Abstract(11) HTML(11) PDF(4)
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Objective: To solve the problem of sour taste in raw chestnut rose juice, and to develop its blended fruit-vegetable juice with good taste quality, sweet and sour taste and high stability. Methods: The raw chestnut rose juice was first deastringented with gelatin adsorption or β-cyclodextrin embedding, and then it was blended with freshly prepared pear juice and pumpkin pulp, finally the pasteurization parameters of blended fruit-vegetable juice were optimized. Results: By adding 0.5% gelatin, the tannin removal rate of raw chestnut rose juice could reach 63.00%. According to the sensory evaluation results and basic physical and chemical indexes, the optimal ratio of compound fruit and vegetable juice was determined as follows: The volume ratio of golden thorn pear juice:pear juice:pumpkin pulp was 34:40:26. As the blended fruit-vegetable juice was subjected to pasteurization at 85 °C for 3 min, total viable bacteria of it was1.38 lg CFU/mL, and the counts of yeasts and molds were under the detect limitation (<1 CFU/mL). There were 2.33% and 5.98% reduction of soluble solid content and total acid of the blended juice, respectively. And 67.8% superoxide dismutase was retained. The retention rates of reduced vitamin C (VC) and total VC were 8.72% and 80.3%, respectively. However, a viable browning of blended juice occurred after pasteurization. Conclusion: A blended chestnut rose fruit-vegetable juice with good taste and high nutritional value was developed by deastringency treatment of raw cloudy juice and further more blending with proper fruit-vegetable juice or pulp. The obtained results would provide primary technical suggestions for the deep processing of chestnut rose juice in the future.
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Packaging and Machinery
Drying Kinetics and Quality Change Law of Perilla during Intelligent Dehumidification Drying Process
ZENG Yan, CAO Chongjiang, LI Zhuxin, HUANG Dechun, YUE Long
2022, 43(16): 263-273.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110336
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In order to clarify the characteristics of Perilla during the process of post-harvest drying, the drying characteristics and quality changes of Perilla stems and leaves at different drying temperatures were studied by using a drying device with intelligent moisture removal. The dry basis moisture content change and drying rate curve of Perilla stem and leaf during drying in the temperature range of 50~80 ℃ were given, and the drying data were fitted by mathematical model. The quality differences among dried Perilla at different temperatures, freeze-dried and natural dried perilla were compared, including volatile oil content, rosmarinic acid content, total flavonoids and total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. The changes of volatile flavor were analyzed by ultrafast gas phase electronic nose analysis system. Based on the above indexes, the quality differences of perilla with different drying methods were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the drying process of Perilla leaves was always in the slow drying stage, while the stems of perilla experienced three drying stages: Increasing speed, constant speed and decreasing speed. The stems and leaves of Perilla were suitable for Page model and Two-term model respectively. Compared with the traditional drying in the shade, the intelligent low-temperature drying (50 ℃) had no significant difference in the content of active ingredients, antioxidant performance, and the content and abundance of odor substances. The content of volatile oil and other substances was better than the natural drying in the shade. Drying temperature is an important factor that affecting the quality of Perilla. The content of active components, antioxidant capacity and flavor substances of Perilla decreased with the increasing of temperature.
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Food Safety
Investigation and Analysis of Pathogenic Microbial Contamination of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Tianjin from 2015 to 2019
XU Shiyong, YU Haitao, LIU Na, LI Ruihuan, GAO Fangrui, HUANG Fengjun, WANG Yong, ZHAO Xin
2022, 43(16): 274-280.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110107
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In order to investigate the pathogenic microbial pollution of ready-to-eat fresh fruits and vegetables in Tianjin, 654 batches of samples of six kinds of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables, such as lettuce, tomato, cucumber, chrysanthemum, peach and pear, were taken from the production and circulation links from 2015 to 2019. The total number of colonies, coliform, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, the pollution status of Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed. The results showed that 135 batches of foodborne pathogens were detected in 654 batches of samples, with a detection rate of 20.6%, including Salmonella 1, Staphylococcus aureus 6, Bacillus cereus 128, and no other pathogens were detected. The samples with high detection rate of foodborne pathogens mostly appeared in supermarkets and farmers’ markets, which indicated that the contamination of foodborne pathogens in fruits and vegetables was easy to occur in the post harveststage. Foodborne pathogen contamination in ready-to-eat fresh fruits and vegetables is a potential safety hazard to consumers' health. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of postharvest circulation links, ensure the food safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and prevent the outbreak of foodborne diseases.
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Analysis and Determination
Determination of 20 Kinds of Synthetic Colorants in Candied Fruit by HPLC
RAN Dan, LUO Susu, ZHANG Kexin, XIAO Yuehuizi, WANG Shuxia, XU Simin, LI Meng
2022, 43(16): 281-289.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100307
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A method for the determination of tartrazine, xinhong, amaranth, indigo, ponceau S, carmine, quinoline yellow, sunset yellow, temptation red, bright blue, acid red 44, acid red, food red 1, orange yellow 1, acid red 50, patent blue V, erythrin, acid orange 2, acid orange 8 and bright blue G in candied fruit was established by high-performance liquid chromatography. The sample was extracted by methanol/ammonia solution, purified by mixed weak anion reversed phase solid phase extraction, eluted by methanol/20 mmol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phase, detected by multi-wavelength diode array detector, and quantified by external standard method. The correlation coefficients were higher than 0.999 in the linear range of 0.1~20 μg/mL. The recoveries were 84.0%~104.5%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.3%~5.3%. Results showed that, the method had the advantages of convenient operation, good stability and high recovery, and was suitable for simultaneous analysis of 20 synthetic colorants in candied fruit. The method could be extended to the analysis of other colorants with the same structure property, and could be reference significance for the detection of colorants in other food categories.
Suitable Cooking Time of Morchella Soup Based on GC-MS and Amino Acid Analysis
FU Ruiqing, WANG Juan, GUO Yanyin, WANG Yujiang, HUANG Xue
2022, 43(16): 290-297.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110099
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In order to determine the suitable cooking time of Morchella soup, the sensory indexes, volatile flavor substances and amino acids of Morchella soup boiled for 20, 40, 60 and 120 min were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the color, smell and taste of Morchella soup were the best and the score was the highest when boiled for 40 min, and the score was significantly higher than that of other cooking time (P<0.05). A total of 49 volatile flavor compounds were detected in the cooking process. 22, 35, 31 and 27 kinds were identified in the Morchella soup cooked for 20, 40, 60 and 120 min respectively. The total quality of aldehydes, acids, esters and hydrocarbons reached the highest at 40 min(P<0.05), reaching 171.93, 163.5, 245.89 and 34.35 mg/g respectively. The total content of fresh amino acids was the highest at 40 min, which was 21.54 mg/g. The content of total amino acids was the highest at 70.20 mg/g after 40 min of cooking, indicating that 40 min of cooking was the peak period of amino acid dissolution. The sensory index score, the kinds and total volatile flavor substances, and the contents and dissolution of amino acids in morchella soup increased during 0~40 min of cooking, decreased gradually during 40~60 min of cooking, and decreased sharply after 60 min of cooking. Too short or too long cooking time was not conducive to the presentation of volatile flavor substances and various amino acids. Under the experimental conditions, the cooking time of Morchella soup should be 40 min, and it was recommended not to exceed 60 min. This paper would provide a theoretical basis for the cooking time of Morchella soup.
Biochemical Components and in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Large-leaf Species Tea Flowers in Yunnan
SHI Mengnan, PENG Yun, ZHANG Jie, XIONG Changyun
2022, 43(16): 298-306.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110135
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In this paper, the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activities of Camellia sinensis, a large-leaf species in Yunnan were studied. The main biochemical indicators of 13 Yunnan large-leaf tea tree flowers and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hydroxyl radical (·OH) scavenging capacity, superoxide anion scavenging capacity, five kinds of in vitro antioxidant indexes were measured. The correlation between the main biochemical components and in vitro antioxidant indexes was analyzed. The results showed that the contents of tea tree flower water extract, tea polyphenols and amino acids were 41.22%~63.73%, 7.74%~13.56%, 1.61%~5.91%, respectively. The contents of caffeine and flavonoids were 4.98~8.46, 4.21~8.63 mg/g, respectively. Each sample showed a certain difference. There were significant differences in the in vitro antioxidant capacity of different tea tree flower samples (P<0.05). Among them, the ancient tea tree flowers of Dijie, Bulang Mountain, and Bingdao showed good antioxidant activities, while the ancient tea flowers of Yangta white tea were the weakest. The antioxidant activity of tea tree flowers in vitro was correlated with biochemical indicators, tea polyphenols were significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (P<0.01), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate Epicatechin gallate (ECG) was significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05), and the results could be used as an important indicator to predict the antioxidant activity of tea flowers.
An Electrochemical Nano-immunosensor for Rapid Detection of α-Casein in Milk
PENG Dandan, LIU Danyang, LI Lina, LIU Zeyang, LU Dingqiang, PANG Guangchang
2022, 43(16): 307-314.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110173
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Based on electrochemical biosensing technology, chitosan was used as bridge agent, combined with gold nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase electrical signal amplification system, and FcεRI receptor protein was used as general molecular probe to adsorb anti-bovine milk α-casein antibody IgE, constructed a nano-gold immunosensor for the detection of allergen α-casein in bovine milk, and the milk α-casein was verified by time-current curve. The results showed that the kinetic equation of α-casein-IgE (immunoglobulins E) interaction conforms to the hyperbolic law, the results met the hyperbolic fitting criterion R2≥0.95, and had a substrate saturation effect similar to that of enzyme-substrate interaction. The value of the α-casein allosteric interaction constant (Ka) was 4.096×10?12 mol/L calculated by referring to the Michaelis constant. The biosensor developed in this study could bind to the specific IgE of allergens and realize ultrasensitive detection of allergens. The detection method had high sensitivity, simple operation and low cost, and could provide a new detection method for allergic reactions caused by low-dose allergens.
Correlation Analysis between Mineral Elements Content and Quality Ingredients of Flat Green Tea
GUI Anhui, YE Fei, WANG Shengpeng, GAO Shiwei, ZHENG Pengcheng, LIU Panpan, WANG Xueping, TENG Jing, ZHENG Lin, FENG Lin
2022, 43(16): 315-321.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110190
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In order to explore the correlation between mineral elements content and quality ingredients of flat green tea, ten representative flat green tea samples from five production areas (Dawu County, Hubei Province, Pan'an County, Zhejiang Province, She County, Anhui Province, Meitan County, Guizhou Province and Emeishan City, Sichuan Province) were collected. The content of nine mineral elements (Mg, K, Ca, P, Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, B) and five quality ingredients (water extracts, tea polyphenols, free amino acids, total soluble sugars, caffeine) were determined. Results showed that the mineral elements influenced each other and existed with synergistic or antagonistic effects. The water extracts content was significantly negatively correlated with the B content (P<0.05), the tea polyphenol content was extremely negatively correlated with Fe content (P<0.01), the total soluble sugar content was significantly positive to the B content (P<0.05), but negatively correlated with Mg and Ca content (P<0.05), Fe and Mn had a negative effect on caffeine content. The principal component analysised exhibited that the first three principal components explained 89.00% of the cumulative variance contribution, Mg, Ca, Zn, Al and P were considered as characteristic elements of flat green tea, water extracts content and free amino acids content were considered as important physicochemical indicators to evaluate the quality of flat green tea. Cluster analysis showed that samples from the same producing area were grouped together, and samples from different producing areas were clearly separated, indicated that the quality of flat green tea showed distinct regional distribution characteristics.
Rapid Detection of Total Bacterial Count of Porphyra yezoensis Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy
SUN Wenke, SHEN Zhaopeng, QUAN Haoyan, XU Ximing, QIAO Leke, DU Chunying, WANG Peng
2022, 43(16): 322-328.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110257
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To discuss the possibility of the non-destructive prediction of the total colonies of Porphyra yezoensis, this research explored a non-destructive method that using near infrared spectral imaging to predict the total colonies of Porphyra yezoensis. Porphyra yezoensis samples were measured the total colonies first, and then collected the original spectral information and total colonies of samples. Standard normal variable transformation (SNV), multiple scattering correction (MSC) and second order derivative were used to preprocess spectral data. After selecting the best pretreatment method in this study, the prediction models of total number of bacteria were established based on spectral information including mixed logistic regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR), artificial neuro network (ANN) and convolutional neural networks (CNN). The results of the investigation showed that the second derivative method combined with standard normal variable transformation was the relative best pretreatment method. And the relative best prediction model was the CNN model which was based on the full-wave band, which the r value was 0.940. According to these results, the convolutional neural networks (CNN) could be used to predict the total number of colonies of Porphyra yezoensis.
Geographical Origin Traceability and Origin Confirmation of Specialty Agricultural Product Lanzhou Lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)
LI Shanjia, CUI Lijuan, SU Peixi, WANG Hui, WANG Fuxiang, WANG Zihao
2022, 43(16): 329-337.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110287
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The place of production is closely related to the quality, safety and nutritional quality of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor), and its geographical origin traceability and origin confirmation is beneficial to the implementation of the protection of the place of production, the fidelity of characteristic products and the sustainable development of the industry. In this study, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the ratios of 3 stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O) and the content of 16 mineral elements (K, Mg, Ca, Na, B, Fe, Zn, Al, Mn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Cd, Se, As, Pb) in samples from the four main producing areas of Lanzhou lily. Combining principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (linear discriminant analysis, LDA), the classification model of Lanzhou lily from different producing areas was constructed to verify the geographical origin traceability and origin confirmation. The results of the study showed that: δ13C, δ15N, K, Mg, Na, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Cd were significantly different among the production areas (P<0.05). 5 principal components were extracted by PCA analysis, and the cumulative variance contribution rate was 84.36%. LDA original discrimination accuracy rate was 100%, leave-one-out cross validation (LOO-CV) discrimination accuracy rate was 88.89%. OPLS-DA model correct discrimination rate was 100%, of which the classification effect was optimal. This study would show that a multivariate statistical classification model based on the stable isotope and mineral element contents of Lanzhou lily could effectively distinguish lily from different production areas, and promote the establishment and improvement of its traceability system, and would be of great significance to the protection and quality control of Lanzhou lily's production area.
Correlation Analysis and Modeling of Salivary Flow Rate and Spicy Sensory Intensity Grading
LUO Xin, DING Lu, XIE Dingyuan, FANG Yan, YU Yonghao
2022, 43(16): 338-346.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120210
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The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between spiciness and saliva flow rate by measuring the saliva flow rate of subjects after consuming different concentrations of capsaicin solutions, and to establish a rapid method for determining the spiciness of foods. The physiological change caused by the increasing of saliva secretion after eating spicy food was used as the influential indicators of spicy taste intensity. The salivary flow rate was calculated by the salivary secretion of the subjects, and the relationship between the spicy intensity and salivary flow rate was fitted. Based on the fitting model, a new grading system for rapid and accurate calibration of spiciness was constructed, and the model grading results were verified by sensory evaluation method. The results showed that the intensity of spiciness significantly affects salivary flow rate (P<0.05), and the spiciness could be accurately and quickly graded by salivary flow rate. According to the salivary flow rate range, the spiciness was classified into 5 levels according to the salivary flow rate range: Grade 1 slightly spicy [Scoville heat units (SHU)10~500 (inclusive)]: Saliva flow rate (g/min) 0.496~1.395 (inclusive). Grade 2 light spicy [SHU500~1000 (inclusive)]: Saliva flow rate (g/min) 1.395~2.153 (inclusive). Grade 3 medium spicy [SHU1000~1500 (inclusive)]: Saliva flow rate (g/min) 2.153~2.749 (inclusive). Grade 4 heavy spicy [SHU1500~3000 (inclusive)]: Saliva flow rate (g/min) 2.749~3.569 (inclusive). Grade 5 hot (SHU>3000): Saliva flow rate (g/min)>3.569. By collecting the saliva secretion of 5~10 people after eating spicy food, the spiciness of the food tasted by the testers could be rated quickly by combining the quantitative relationship between spicy taste intensity and saliva flow rate. The saliva flow rate spiciness rating result was in the same spicy taste measurement level as the sensory rating result, which could basically reflect the real spiciness feeling of people after eating spicy food.
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Storage and Preservation
Effects of Precise Temperature Treatment on the Browning, Physiological and Quality of Fresh Cut Lotus Root
ZHANG Peng, YAN Bi, JIA Xiaoyu, LI Jiangkuo
2022, 43(16): 347-354.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110097
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In order to determine the effect of phase temperature storage on the quality of fresh cut lotus root after anti browning agents treatment. Fresh cut lotus roots were treated with anti browning agent (mass fraction of 1.0% anhydrous citric acid+0.1% calcium ascorbate+0.2% L-aspartic acid) and stored at phase temperature (?0.5±0.1) ℃, ice temperature (?0.5±0.3) ℃ and cold storage (4±1) ℃. The effects of different precise temperature on apparent color, browning substrate and related enzyme activities, physiological indices and nutrient quality of fresh cut lotus root were studied. The results showed that precise temperature (phase temperature and ice temperature) could delay the decrease of L*, the increase of a* and browning degree, inhibit the decrease of total phenol and the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase when stored for 6 d, and the phase temperature storage was the best to maintain the original color of fresh-cut lotus root. In the storage process, the precise temperature (phase temperature and ice temperature) treatment could inhibit the increase of respiratory intensity, ethylene production rate, relative conductivity and malondialdehyde content, while delaying the increase of reducing sugar and the decrease of VC content in fresh cut lotus root. The comprehensive score of SPSS showed that the comprehensive score of phase temperature group was the highest. Principal component analysis showed that the correlation between phase temperature treatment group and polyphenol oxidase, relative conductivity, browning rate, malondialdehyde and a* was lower. Therefore, phase temperature storage could delay the browning and maintain the quality of fresh cut lotus root.
Influence of Broccoli Stem Extract on the Storage Quality of Broccoli Heads
SUN Yupeng, CHEN Ying, GUO Yanyin, ZHANG Yuxiao, MA Yangli, YANG Mei, FU Ruiqing, WANG Yujiang
2022, 43(16): 355-362.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110104
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To verify the effect of nutritional compensation on the preservation of broccoli, the filtered squeeze juice of broccoli stalks was used as stem extract, and by dipping at the base of the stem to simulated the nutrient supply of broccoli growth state. In the experiment, broccoli heads were respectively drenched by stem-extract-solution and distilled-water for 12 h as treatments, and natural placement was designed as control. During storage at 10 ℃ ethylene release, respiration rate, water content, weight loss rate, relative conductivity, and malondialdehyde, chlorophyll, vitamin C content, total soluble solids, titratable acid were studied. The results showed that, compared with the control treatment, the extract treatment could postpone the release of ethylene and the arrival of the respiratory peak, and reduce the respiratory intensity, the maximum values of ethylene release and respiratory intensity were respectively 60.29% and 77.22% of the control treatment, and maintain the water content of broccoli and delay weight loss. The water content of broccoli treated with the extract solution reached 83.64%, and the weight loss was only 7.01% at the end of storage, and the increasing of MDA content and electrical conductivity were delayed at 70.19% and 49.93% respectively. The extract treatment could maintain a high chlorophyll content, reached 7.01 mg/kg. VC content and TSS content maintained a high level, 60.99%, 20.82% higher than the control treatment, and the final TA content was 0.30%. In summary, the broccoli stem extract could have a good fresh-keeping effect on broccoli heads.
Effect of Exogenous Melatonin Treatments on the Storage Quality of Dictyophora rubrovolvata
MA Chao, WANG Rufu, CHEN Guangxian, XU Erjuan, YANG Zaiqun, ZHOU Xiaoqing, YANG Tingmei, WANG Rui
2022, 43(16): 363-370.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120009
Abstract(4) HTML(1) PDF(0)
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In order to explore effect of exogenous melatonin treatments on storage quality of the fresh Dictyophora rubrovolvata, using fresh Dictyophora rubrovolvata as test material, samples were devided into four treatments (CK, 50 μL/L melatonin, 100 μL/L melatonin and 150 μL/L melatonin). The storage temperature was (1±0.5) ℃. Every 3 d, the sensory quality evaluation, rot ratio, respiration rate, malondialdehyde content (MDA), browning degree index, energy metabolism, O2?·generation rate, mass H2O2 fraction and antioxidant capacity were detected. The results showed that the sensory quality of CK, Y1, Y2 and Y3 at 12 d were 2.68, 6.48, 8.52 and 7.28 while rot ratio were 30.48%, 19.29%, 5.48% and 6.99%. Beside that, all the exogenous melatonin treatments could significantly (P<0.05) inhibit the respiration rate, MDA content, browning degree index, O2?· generation rate and mass H2O2 fraction of the fresh Dictyophora rubrovolvata increased, and could maintain the energy metabolism and the antioxidant capacity. These results suggested that exogenous melatonin treatment could inhibit the senescence process and maintain the commodity of the fresh Dictyophora rubrovolvata. Among them, exogenous melatonin at 100 μL/L had the best preservation effect on the fresh Dictyophora rubrovolvata.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Protective Effects of Armillaria mellea Polysaccharides on Nicotine-induced Lung Injury in Rats
ZHANG Ruimeng, SU Xin, LI Yu, BAO Xiaoman, SHEN Minghua
2022, 43(16): 371-376.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100193
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Objective: To investigate the protective effects of Armillaria mellea polysaccharides on lung injury induced by nicotine in rats. Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and Armillaria mellea polysaccharides low and high dose groups. During modeling, except for the normal group, the other groups were intraperitoneally injected with nicotine 2 mg/kg body weight, and the low and high dose groups were gavaged with Armillaria mellea polysaccharides 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The morphologic changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were detected by ELISA, MDA level was detected by TBA method, SOD activity was detected by WST-1 method. The protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 and p-NF-κB in lung tissues were detected by Western blot assay. Results: Compared with the control group, after intervention of nicotine, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and MDA were increased, the activity of SOD was decreased in plasma, the phosphorylation expression of NF-κB protein was increased, Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression were decreased in lung tissue. Compared with the model group, after intervention of Armillaria mellea polysaccharides, the degree of lung tissue injury was alleviated, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and MDA were significantly decreased, the activity of SOD was increased in plasma, the phosphorylation expression of NF-κB protein was significantly decreased, Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression were significantly increased in lung tissue. Conclusion: Armillaria mellea polysaccharides could inhibit the lung tissue injury by nicotine induced. The mechanism of action may be related to its regulation of NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Effect of Tea Polysaccharide-Tea Polyphenol on Improving D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage of Brain in Mice
TONG Xinyi, WEI Zheng, CHEN Mei, CHENG Hong, HUANG Xianzhi, DING Xiaowen
2022, 43(16): 377-383.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110008
Abstract(7) HTML(3) PDF(5)
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Objective: To explore the synergistic effect of tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol on the improvement of oxidative stress damage in brain induced by D-galactose (D-Gal) in mice, and to provide a basic for the development of functional food. Methods: The oxidative stress model was induced by D-Gal, and 12 mice were retained as the normal control group. The mice that were successfully modeled were randomly divided into a model control group and a positive drug group (reduced glutathione, 200 mg/kg·bw), tea polyphenol group (50 mg/kg·bw), and low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol groups (40, 100, 250 mg/kg·bw). Gavage for 45 days to determine the content of biomacromolecule oxidative damage markers and enzyme antioxidant system related indicators in the brain of homogenate mice. Results: Compared with the model control group, the levels of the high-dose tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol group of the biomacromolecule oxidative damage markers including protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced oxidation (AOPP), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-iso-prostaglandin(8-iso-PG), 8-hydroxy-2'-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 5- hydroxy-2' -desoxyguanosine (5-OH-DG) were significantly decreased by 22.95%, 15.23%, 15.29%, 25.23%, 23.15%, 32.36%, 28.63%, respectively (P<0.05). The levels of antioxidants including SOD and GPX were significantly increased by 71.15% (P<0.05) and 36.90% (P<0.05), all of which reached the normal levels (P>0.05). Compared with the tea polyphenol group, the levels of PCO, AOPP, 3-NT, MDA, 8-iso-PG, 8-OHdG, 5-OH-DG of the high-dose tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol group were decreased by 4.06%, 1.81%, 4.96%, 10.12%, 3.40%, 12.50%(P>0.05), respectively and the level of 8-OHdG was significantly decreased by 21.19% (P<0.05). The level of SOD was increased by 15.63% (P>0.05) and the level of GPX was significantly increased by 5.84% (P<0.05). Conclusion: The tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol mixture could effectively improve the oxidative damage of the brain of mice, and the effect of the tea polysaccharide-tea polyphenol mixture was better than that of the same dose of tea polyphenol.
Optimization of Layered Rice Bran Meal Replacement Powder Formula of High Dietary Fiber Based on Linear Programming Method
XIAO Zhigang, CHEN Lan, YUE Chengcheng, SU Lina, LI Ruizhi, WANG Peng
2022, 43(16): 384-389.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110147
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With four layers of rice bran, soybean powder, purple rice powder, mushroom powder, corn powder, sweet potato powder and red date powder as the main raw materials, the linear programming method was used to design the layered rice bran meal replacement powder. Five kinds of layered rice bran meal replacement powder formulations were obtained under the main constraint that the dietary fiber content was not less than 13% of the total quality, and the price was not higher than six yuan/share. The optimal formulation was further determined by sensory evaluation, hydration characteristics and comparison of free radical clearance. Results showed that: The optimal formula contained rice bran 1# 30 g, rice bran 2# 30 g, rice bran 3# 98.68 g, rice bran 4# 34 g, soybean powder 22 g, purple rice powder 26 g, mushroom powder 14 g, corn powder 10 g, sweet potato powder 18 g, red jujube powder 30 g. The optimal formula had 16.03% dietary fiber content and sensory score of 80 points. At 25 and 100 ℃, the water absorption indexes of meal replacement powder were 1.07 and 1.19, water solubility were 68.46% and 71.22%, the expansion potential were 3.38 and 4.15. The free radical scavenging rates of DPPH and ABTS+ were 42.59% and 57.52%. The layered rice bran meal replacement powder had high dietary fiber content and strong antioxidant activity.
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Reviews
Current Status Research of Projective Mapping in Food Research and Development
SU Qingyu, CHANG Xiaomin, LIU Yaran, XU Xiaoqing, LI Jiaze, ZHU Yuxuan, SONG Hao, ZHU Baoqing
2022, 43(16): 390-399.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070202
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With the widespread use of sensory profiling methods in the food industry and the increasing demands of researchers on analytical techniques, rapid sensory analysis methods have emerged, one of which is projective mapping. projective mapping can quickly collect sensory attributes of products and analyze the similarity or difference of sensory characteristics among products, it can also be combined with preference questionnaires to distinguish people categories and explore the factors affecting consumer preferences. This paper examines the literature related to the projective mapping method in recent years, introduces the experimental procedure, influencing factors and data processing of the method, advantages and limitations, derivative methods and their research in different types of food products, and looks forward to the development of this method, in order to provide reference for researchers and enterprises infields related to food sensory evaluation.
Research Progress of Plant Active Compounds in Anti Osteoporosis
JIA Mingjie, LUO Jiayuan, JIANG Shilong, BAO Yihong
2022, 43(16): 400-412.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070228
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Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass, osteopenia, and bone microstructure degradation. The cause is that the activity of osteoclasts is greater than that of osteoblasts, resulting in bone resorption greater than bone formation. The current method of treating osteoporosis is mainly through calcium supplementation or drug treatment, but it would be accompanied by disadvantages such as poor absorption, insignificant effect, and large side effects. Plant natural active ingredients have the characteristics of wide sources, abundant structure and less adverse reactions. They could be used as new methods to prevent and treat osteoporosis. This article summarizes the anti-osteoporosis effects of osteoporosis and plant active ingredients. Through the analysis of related signal pathways, transcription factors, protein expression and other aspects, the anti-osteoporosis mechanism of plant active ingredients and related clinical research are described. On this basis, the anti-osteoporosis products of medicinal and edible plants are introduced, aiming to provide theoretical support for the development of new drugs and functional foods.
Development and Application Progress of Food for Special Medical Purpose for Phenylketonuria
LU Chenhui, HE Yongxi, WEI Haodong, FENG Yongwei, GAO Hui, SHI Xueli, ZHANG Yi
2022, 43(16): 413-420.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070262
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Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to restrict the intake of phenylalanine (Phe) or its structural analogues for life because of the genetic defect that prevents them from metabolizing Phe normally. Therefore, the research and development of food for special medical purpose for PKU is important to protect the health of patients and improve their quality of life. This paper reviews the dietary regimen for patients with PKU, focusing on special low-protein foods, low-Phe foods, and food for special medical purpose based on glycomacropeptides, and details the sources or preparation techniques and functional properties of these foods, and look into future research directions and research priorities to address the current problems of single product form and poor palatability in this field, with a view to providing a better understanding of the development of food for special medical purpose for PKU. The research direction and focus of future research are also presented to provide reference for the research and development of food for special medical purpose for PKU.
Research Progress of Dietary Intervention Strategies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome
BAI Xixi, HAN Chenggang, XU Ying, HAN Jingsong, CAO Chongjiang, CHENG Shujie
2022, 43(16): 421-431.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080007
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease. The main clinical symptoms are abdominal pain, bloating, abnormal defecation frequency and character. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex, including genetic factors, dietary differences, gut microbiota changes, gastrointestinal infection and brain-gut axis dysfunction. The main way to relieve IBS mainly focus on dietary restriction, including low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) diet, low advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet, gluten-free diet and low lactose diet, which can effectively improve abdominal discomfort symptoms of IBS patients. This article summarizes the research status quo of domestic and foreign scholars for IBS in recent years, including the pathophysiological mechanism of IBS, the relationship between dietary patterns and IBS intestinal flora, quantitative detection methods for FODMAPs components and AGEs in food. Food processing technologies are also introduced to reduce the content of FODMAPs and AGEs in food, in order to provide healthy and effective dietary intervention strategies for IBS patients.
Research Progress in the Application of Radio Frequency Technology in Fruit and Vegetable Drying
ZHU Jingnan, PENG Jian, GU Qingqing, YU Yuanshan, WU Jijun, XU Yujuan
2022, 43(16): 432-441.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080018
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Drying is one of the most important technologies for fruit and vegetable processing. The energy consumption during drying and the quality of dried products are highly correlated to the selected drying methods. As a new type of physical heating technology, radio frequency (RF) heating technology has attracted much attention in recent years because of its rapid heating, volume heating effect, long energy penetration depth, even microorganism control, and enzyme deactivation. This paper mainly summarized the mechanism and characteristics of RF heating technology, the factors that affecting RF heating technology application in fruit and vegetable. Moreover, the application status of RF technology in fruit and vegetable drying, microorganism control, and enzyme deactivation are also concluded. Finally, the existing problems, possible solutions and future development trends of RF heating technology in fruit and vegetable drying are also proposed. This review could provide theoretical guidelines for RF industrial application in fruit and vegetable drying in the future.
Research Progress of Phycobiliproteins from Seaweed
QIANG Xi, WANG Lijun, NIU Jianfeng, GONG Xiangzhong, WANG Guangce
2022, 43(16): 442-451.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080019
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Phycobiliprotein is a kind of natural pigment active protein, which exists widely in all kinds of seaweed. It is an important part of seaweed photosynthesis. Phycobiliproteins often exist on the thylakoid membrane in the form of phycobilisomes. Phycobiliproteins have specific light absorption peak and fluorescence emission peak. Phycobiliproteins have various biological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, and immune-enhancing. High purity phycobiliproteins have high economic values. In recent years, many new research progresses have been made in the extraction and purification process and application development. To provide with a systematic and detailed information about those features of phycobiliproteins, this article reviews a relatively comprehensive analysis on the extraction source, structural composition, extraction, purification process and the application of phycobiliprotein in the fields of food, cosmetics and medicine, which provides reference for the further development and utilization of phycobiliprotein.
Current Advances in Neuroprotective Effects and Relative Mechanisms of Sesamin
JIANG Deqi, MO Juanfeng, BIN Shuilian, TUO Yinting, LI Ziqiang, LI Xinyi, LIANG Ruilan
2022, 43(16): 452-457.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080048
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Sesamin is an important lignan compound, which is mainly isolated from sesame seeds. Sesamin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, reducing β-amyloid aggregation, anti-excitatory toxicity, promoting dopamine production and neurotrophic factor expression. Sesamin can effectively prevent and treat Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, depression and anxiety, cerebral ischemia injury and other neuropsychiatric diseases at the animal and cellular levels. In this paper, the neuroprotective effects and related mechanisms of sesamin in vivo and in vitro experiments are reviewed in order to provide scientific basis for the development and application of sesamin-related health care products and food additives.
Application and Research Status of Sorting in Food Research and Development
LIU Songyu, SHAN Bingqi, ZHOU Xiaomiao, CHEN Haohan, PENG Gongfeixue, LIU Yue, SONG Hao, ZHU Baoqing, WANG Xiaonan
2022, 43(16): 458-466.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080051
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Sensory analysis methods are widely used in the food industry. Due to the limitations of traditional sensory analysis methods such as long training time and high investment, various rapid analysis methods have been developed, one of which is the sorting method. Sorting method requires assessors to categorize products according to the similarity of their sensory characteristics and use multivariate statistical analysis methods to quickly obtain the sensory distribution of products. This paper mainly introduces the experimental design, data analysis, development, application in food research, and advantages and limitations of Sorting. The development trend of sorting is also prospected, aiming to provide a reference for further research and application of the method in the food industry.
Research Progress of Ketogenic Diet (KD) in Clinical Nutritional Adjuvant Therapy
PEI Chenlin, LU Dingqiang, PANG Guangchang
2022, 43(16): 467-475.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080071
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With the development of society and the increasing incidence of many chronic metabolic diseases, ketogenic diet(KD) has been paid more and more attention as a potential, clinical and nutritional adjuvant therapy. At present, there are an increasing number of clinical applications of ketogenic diet as an adjuvant intervention therapy which has a regulating effect on glucose metabolism and has achieved positive results. In this paper, the physiology of ketosis, the basis and safety of ketogenic diet are summarized. From the perspective of metabolism, the advances of the clinical application research of ketogenic diet in the prevention and adjuvant treatment of intractable epilepsy and several representative chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cancer are introduced, which provides reference ideas for the development of clinical nutrition assisted medical treatment in China.
Research Progress of Polysaccharides from Edible and Medicinal Fungi in Regulating Lipid Metabolism through Gut Microbiota
LI Quancen, XIAO Meifang, LIU Bin, CHEN Haiming, ZENG Feng
2022, 43(16): 476-485.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080196
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Obesity and hyperlipidemia have become serious public health problems in today's society. Studies have found that edible and medicinal fungi polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of probiotics in the intestines, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, improve the intestinal flora, and play a role in regulating lipid metabolism. But at present, its specific mechanism has not been determined and unified in regulating lipid metabolism. This article mainly focused on the interaction and effects between polysaccharides of edible and medicinal bacteria, gut microbiota and lipid metabolism, as well as the possible mechanism of edible and medicinal fungi polysaccharides in regulating lipid metabolism through gut microbiota, mainly including the short-chain fatty acid pathway and the activity of reducing inflammation are reviewed. The aim of this study would provide a reference for the utilization of active ingredients of edible and medicinal fungi and the research and development of nutritional functional foods.
Interaction and Mechanism of Probiotics with Gut Flora and Immune Regulation: A Review
TANG Manyu, WANG Wanqing, QIANG Jingwen, HUA Wei, WU Shuang, LI Yali, ZHEN Xin, LI Chungeng, CHENG Yanling
2022, 43(16): 486-493.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-00306.2022030025
Abstract(31) HTML(3) PDF(7)
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Probiotics play beneficial roles in improving the host intestinal microecological balance and improving the host health level and health state. It mainly affects the host health by regulating the intestinal microbiota and participating in the immune regulation of various diseases, thus improving the gastrointestinal physiology. Probiotics have considerable potential in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of their interaction with gut flora and immune regulation are needed. In this paper, the distribution and colonization of probiotics in the intestinal tract, the regulation of probiotics on intestinal flora and intestinal function, and the relationship between probiotics and immune regulation are briefly discussed, in order to provide reference for the future research on the interaction between probiotics and intestinal flora and the clinical application of probiotics.
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